Patuxent River Ski Jump Video (No F-35Bs on it)

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spazsinbad

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Unread post17 Oct 2019, 17:44

Another nice ski jump explanation from 'ENGINES' at pprune. Always good to be reminded that some know their stuff.
SKI JUMPS USAGE by STOVL & CONVENTIONAL Aircraft
17 Oct 2019 'ENGINES'

“...A conventional fixed wing aircraft can launch from a ski jump, but only at weights well below normal land based MTOWs. That's because the design basis for most ski jumps (to date) is that the STOVL aircraft they support can use their vectored lift systems to generate an optimal flight profile after ramp exit. They leave the ramp at BELOW flying speed, but at a high positive rate of climb generated by the ramp profile. After ramp exit rate of climb starts to fall, but is still positive. Because they're STOVL aircraft, they set their thrust vector independently of angle of attack to optimise acceleration while ensuring a positive (albeit falling) minimising rate of climb. As speed builds up, wing lift increases, and thrust is vectored further aft. At a known distance out from the ramp, the rate of climb stops falling and starts to increase again. This is known as the 'inflection point', and for a Sea Harrier it was about a kilometre out. Effectively, the ski jump has generated a 'runway in the sky'. This delivers a very significant increase in launch weight. The same happens with the F-35B.

Conventional aircraft can't do this. Their thrust vector is fixed relative to the aircraft axis and when they leave the ramp they have no option but to adopt a high angle of attack to generate as much wing lift as they can, and also get some lift from their (fixed) thrust system. However, that generates very high drag, so more thrust is needed to accelerate the aircraft. The result is a significant reduction in available takeoff weight. I know that some launches from the Chinese and Russian carriers involved the aircraft climbing then descending back towards the sea as they built up airspeed, before climbing away. Pilots tell me that's not an optimal situation. (I'm paraphrasing to remove the more agricultural language most of them used). The Chinese are working on catapult carriers for a reason. It's all about the physics....”

Source: https://www.pprune.org/military-aviatio ... st10596629
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Unread post11 Dec 2019, 22:33

:doh: via E-mail: Olde Schoole (I guess USofA) testin' of JumpDeSki with LOADed DUMP TRUCK (perhaps it's Brit?). Dunno. :shock:

Reserchin me SkyJumpy pages I see that it is the PaxRibber USMC example from 1979 YAV-8B testin'. ASLO (jes I now) back in the mysts of toime 2009 there was this: viewtopic.php?f=22&t=12631&p=158253&hilit=LeJeune#p158253
"Operation Ski Jump was the test taking off of a Marine Corps YAV-8B Harrier aircraft, from a specially built ramp was constructed by the Bridge Co., 8th Engineer Support Bn., 2nd Mar. Div., Fleet Marine Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C. Location: NAVAL AIR STATION PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND (MD) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA) Date Shot: 1 Jul 1979"
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... i_jump.jpg
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SkiJumpDumpTruckPDF.jpg
YAV-8B_Harrier_testing_a_ski_jumpPDF.jpg
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Unread post11 Dec 2019, 23:16

This is the tinyURL of a very long online PDF url won't ain't there no more: http://tinyurl.com/nw47v36 So the referenced PDF pages are in this PDF at this post: viewtopic.php?f=22&t=20138&p=373888&hilit=tinyurl+jump#p373888

SKI JUMP INFO VARIOUS Sep 2015 pp152 forumED.pdf (11Mb) download/file.php?id=25188

Page 85 of this mentioned PDF here has this poor quality graphic of the 1979 skihump and YAV-8B testing 'pon it.
"The McDonnell Douglas AV-8 Harrier was tested on a 12-degree ski jump for suitability on small-deck carriers in July 1979. It was flown by Capt. Russ Stromberg, USMC." http://tinyurl.com/nw47v36
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YAV-8BharrierUSMCskiJumpPaxRiver1979.jpg
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Unread post12 Dec 2019, 05:44

A much edited 24 page PDF about the AV-8B improvements (compared to AV-8A) with SKI JUMP & Performance comments has been excerpted from an 'original' PDF somehow made very large at 270 Mbs 97 pages but when rePRiNted PRN it came back to about 17 Mbs which is too large for attaching to this forum. Elsewhere I'll attach an 11Mb 73 page edited version.

"Ski Jump capability demonstrated on (26 flights 33 launches)" [I guess this refers to PAX RIVER ski jump illustrated]

AV-8B Executive Summary - Naval Air Systems Command (by McDonnell Douglas Corporation) revised 16 Jan 1981
http://www.filefactory.com/file/yteho9j ... Report.pdf (270Mbs)
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SkiJUMP & IMPROVEMENTS sample AV-8B Executive Summary Report PRN pp24.pdf
(3.89 MiB) Downloaded 624 times
AV-8BskiJumpGraphicFORUM.jpg
YAV-8BskiJumpFORUM.jpg
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Unread post12 Dec 2019, 10:25

Forgot to add quote (has been noted before) about an AV-8B tested on ASTURIAS Ski Jump for reals from above PDF.
"The Marine Corps tested an instrumented AV-8B Harrier II on the Spanish aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias (R-11) in December 1988. Then Major Art Nalls, USMC, reported a Harrier at its maximum weight could takeoff in 400 feet instead of 750 feet on a flat deck." http://tinyurl.com/nw47v36
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Unread post13 Dec 2019, 14:58

spazsinbad wrote::doh: via E-mail: Olde Schoole (I guess USofA) testin' of JumpDeSki with LOADed DUMP TRUCK (perhaps it's Brit?). Dunno. :shock:

Reserchin me SkyJumpy pages I see that it is the PaxRibber USMC example from 1979 YAV-8B testin'. ASLO (jes I now) back in the mysts of toime 2009 there was this: viewtopic.php?f=22&t=12631&p=158253&hilit=LeJeune#p158253
"Operation Ski Jump was the test taking off of a Marine Corps YAV-8B Harrier aircraft, from a specially built ramp was constructed by the Bridge Co., 8th Engineer Support Bn., 2nd Mar. Div., Fleet Marine Force, Camp Lejeune, N.C. Location: NAVAL AIR STATION PATUXENT RIVER, MARYLAND (MD) UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA) Date Shot: 1 Jul 1979"
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/c ... i_jump.jpg


ah memories!!! I worked on that one, god climbing into the back HOLE to work on things, she was a SOOTY MESS, when you got out of there you also were sooty !!!!!!!!!
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Unread post17 Feb 2020, 00:31

Some WAFFLE from WEFL via sweet JANE re F-35B Ski Jump Testing at PAX 2017 - with details not known before? Dunno.
Jane’s features WFEL’s F35B ski jump’s involvement in HMS Queen Elizabeth trials [best read all at source]
Oct 2017 Richard Scott

"The F-35 Integrated Test Force at NAS Patuxent River is once again conducting land-based ski-ramp testing in preparation for trials on HMS Queen Elizabeth planned for 2018, using the take-off ramp which WFEL designed, developed and manufactured. The following special report by Richard Scott was recently featured in Jane’s International Defence Review and is published here with kind permission from IHS Jane’s....

...The ski-jump ramp works by imparting an upward vertical velocity and ballistic profile to the aircraft, providing additional time to accelerate to flying speed while ensuring it is on a safe trajectory. This additional time is manifested either in a reduced take-off length for a given weight, or increased launch weight (fuel and/or ordnance) for a fixed take-off distance.

This additional performance does not come for free, however, with a significant increase in landing gear loads above those of a standard take-off (albeit low compared with a landing). The increase represents the energy transferred to the aircraft as it translates up the ramp; and if the angle and curvature of the ramp are increased to obtain greater performance benefit, so are the loads.

Although the basic physics of a Ski Jump STO remained unchanged, the F-35B pilot has the big advantage of being able to rely on technology rather than technique, according to Pete ‘Wizzer’ Wilson, BAE Systems F-35 STOVL lead test pilot. “The single key difference between a ski-jump in the Harrier [and] the F-35B is the pilot action right at the end of the ski-jump, just as the aircraft is becoming airborne,” he told Jane’s . “In the Harrier, the pilot had to manually move the nozzles “downwards” at the correct time. In the [F-35B], the control law does it automatically.

“While this may sound like a relatively small change, it’s actually very significant. One of the often talked about problems with the Harrier was the fact that it had three levers for the pilot to control with two hands: the stick, the throttle, and the nozzle lever. While the pilot’s right hand was enough to control aircraft attitude with the stick, it was quite common for the pilot to make a mistake with the left hand, which was required to operate both the throttle and the nozzle lever. This led to many accidents, scattered through the history of Harrier operations.”

The F-35B is very different, with a throttle on the left and a stick on the right. Software — embodied in the aircraft’s advanced control law — takes care of the rest. “Push the throttle to full power, release the brakes, and steer towards the centre of the ski-jump. That, in a nutshell, is what the F-35B pilot has to do during a ski-jump launch,” said Wilson.

“The Ski Jump STO mode requires no action on the part of the pilot other than to ensure the aircraft is steered up the ski-jump. This is a crucial piece of the design since it means the pilot can’t make the mistake of selecting the ‘wrong’ type of take-off, for example selecting a Ski Jump STO when it is actually a Flat Deck STO.”

It is a far cry from the busy cockpit of the Harrier, where the pilot needed to set the correct trim setting before releasing the brakes, move the left hand from the throttle to the nozzle lever after pushing the throttle to full power, and then adjust the nozzles downward at just the right time. The Harrier’s flyaway characteristics were also less predictable. “It was not uncommon to have to control angle of attack once airborne,” Wilson said. “The automatics of the F-35B make the ski-jump launch extremely straightforward for the pilot; in contrast, the Harrier was much higher workload and comparatively much higher risk.”

QinetiQ flight test engineer Gordon Stewart, who has spent much of the last five years attached to the joint US/UK F-35 Integrated Test Force at Patuxent River, points out that making STOVL easy was an important design consideration for the F-35B control law. “Because of the high level of automation embodied, a ski-jump launch is in fact the most straightforward take-off manoeuvre for the STOVL variant of the Lightning II,” he explained to a Royal Aeronautical Society audience in May this year. “When the pilot slams the throttle, the control law is configuring the aircraft for maximum acceleration.”

At the point the aircraft accelerates up the ramp, the control law detects the change in pitch rate and attitude. “That’s the point where it transitions into ski-jump mode,” Stewart said. “Once that occurs, the aircraft has approximately one second to transition to flyaway.”

During that brief period, the control law is configuring the aircraft to minimise the pitch transient on exiting the ramp. It achieves this by setting the horizontal tail position, repositioning the angle of the engine nozzle, and changing the balance/rate of thrust between the lift fan and the aft nozzle. “The thrust split moves forward on the ramp, then back after exit,” said Stewart. “That rapid change in ratio to balance [the aircraft in airborne flight] reflects what’s happening coming off the ramp....

...A first launch from the ski ramp at NAS Patuxent River had been planned for February 2015, but inclement weather conditions and ‘slot’ availability saw this slip to mid-year. “Specific planning for that first launch determined that [aircraft] air speed should be no slower than a previous flat deck launch at similar weight,” said Stewart. “We also put an extra 10% margin on gear load, and a 0.5% extra margin on gear stroke.

“As regards to wind limits, our plan said no tailwind, a maximum 20 kt headwind, and a maximum 8 kt crosswind.” Wilson performed the first ski-jump STO on 19 June 2015, flying development aircraft BF-04. “The results of that first launch brought out a couple of things,” he said. “We had slightly more pitch up than predicted after ramp exit, and the gear extended faster than predicted.”

A second launch was performed in similar conditions to the first test but at a slower entry speed. Once again, the aircraft pitched up more than expected, said Stewart. “Our modelling hadn’t predicted that ... the results showed different pitching moments near the ramp exit. We found those ‘missing’ moments and injected them into the simulation.” Another 19 launches were performed in September–October 2015 using BF-01 and BF-04.

“These flight tests, performed with the same control law version, were executed no slower than 65 kt at ramp exit,” Stewart explained. “By keeping the speed up we avoided those pitch-up issues.” Informed by the data captured in Phase 1 testing, the aircraft model was updated and the control law refinements implemented. “One consequence was to introduce a new thrust split schedule to ensure that the thrust can’t get too ‘far forward’,” said Stewart. “That helped with the pitch response.”

Phase 1 ski-ramp testing resumed at Patuxent River during April 2016 using the revised control law. Aircraft BF-01 and BF-04 repeated previous test points at various weights, centres of gravity, and speeds. Regression testing showed an improved pitch response better matching with models.

By the end of June 2016, a total of 31 ski-ramp take-offs had been performed to complete Phase 1 testing. Wilson explained, “We’ve done weights up to full fuel and full internal stores; forward/mid/aft centre-of-gravity positions; a range of ramp exit speeds up to 95 KCAS [knots-calibrated air speed]; line-up distances from 315 ft to 620 ft; and we’ve done mil and max power [non-afterburning and afterburning] launches.

“We learned that we had excellent models that did a good job of predicting how Ski Jump STO mode performs,” he added. “However, we saw a couple of imperfections in the modelling that we have now corrected and we also found that we were not positioning the nozzles in the optimum position under all circumstances, which has allowed us to tweak the control law and improve the mode. We discovered that the performance of the aircraft is even better than we had hoped, so we continue to refine our performance predictions.”

Phase 2 Ski Jump STO trials began at Patuxent River in June this year. “Phase 1 was really a de-risking exercise, with internal stores only,” Stewart explained. “Phase 2 includes the bulk of the test points to expand the ski-jump envelope.”

Wilson amplified, “The second trials will allow us to evaluate handling characteristics with external weapons including asymmetric weapon loads, crosswinds up to 15 kt, and overspeed/underspeed take-offs. In the order of 150 ski-jumps will be performed from the Pax ramp on this part of the programme.

“We will complete by the end of the year, most likely by the end of October. The results will be used to allow us to take relatively big steps during FOCFT, which means we’ll get through the testing at the ship much quicker and with much lower risk.”

What land-based testing will not replicate is the ski-ramp on Queen Elizabeth . “The Pax ramp is actually modelled on the 12°, 150 ft CVS ramp profile,” pointed out Wilson. “ Queen Elizabeth has a longer [200 ft] two-part ramp angled at 12.5°. So there will be a little bit of the unknown there.”

He continued, “We have predictions for how the aircraft should behave from multiple ski-jump profiles, including the Pax ski-jump. By comparing the results with the predictions for the Pax ski-jump, we can have a really well-educated guess at how any slight imperfections in the control law should impact the other ski-jump profiles. Then we can tweak the control law in ways that should improve the QEC handling characteristics.

“When we do this, we recognise that we might actually make the handling characteristics worse for the Pax ski-jump. But since we’re not designing for the Pax ski-jump as an in-service case, we don’t mind doing that.”"

Source: https://www.wfel.com/en/news/janes-feat ... lveme/1008
A4G Skyhawk: www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ & www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/videos?view_as=subscriber
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