F 35 Sensor Fusion and networking

Cockpit, radar, helmet-mounted display, and other avionics
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falcon.16

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Unread post25 Oct 2018, 11:51

SpudmanWP wrote:It's part of the ASQ-239 Barracuda system.

The AN/ASQ-239 system protects the F-35 with advanced technology for next generation missions to counter current and emerging threats. Equipped with offensive and defensive electronic warfare options for the pilot and aircraft, the suite provides fully integrated radar warning, targeting support, and self-protection, to detect and defeat surface and airborne threats.

https://www.baesystems.com/en-us/produc ... ure-system

The AN/ASQ-242 CNI is for communications.

https://www.northropgrumman.com/Capabil ... asheet.pdf


Thanks.
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Unread post31 Oct 2018, 00:57

Adddddding to dat network SIMILARLY to the OzWEEGEE Jericho Plan (but dollars constrain USAF but they'll get there).
Tankers could be a critical part of the US Air Force’s future network
27 Oct 2018 Jeff Martin

"GRAPEVINE, Texas — The U.S. Air Force’s aerial refueling tanker fleet could expand its portfolio by serving as a node in the service’s larger network, according to Gen. Mike Holmes, the commander of Air Combat Command. “We’ve always understood the capability of that tanker to pass information back and forth, and we know that that works, and we know that node can be tankers spread out from the place we took off from and the place we are operating,” Holmes said in response to an audience question at the 2018 Airlift Tanker Association symposium outside Dallas, Texas. “So I think its fantastic, and I’m all for it.”...

...Under Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David Goldfein, the service has been working to find a way to link aircraft and sensors on a network to enhance awareness in combat operations. Goldfein, who has flown on the Air Force’s next tanker, the long-delayed Boeing KC-46 Pegasus, said flying the aircraft was about more than controlling the stick.

…when it comes to the larger, Air Force-wide network, Holmes said the service has “done enough talking” about the future network architecture, adding: “It’s time to take a step and decide what that way forward will be and what that architecture will be.”

“When you look at our future ISR and command systems, Will Roper, our senior acquisition official, is going to take a new look at what we’re going to do to replace the capability that’s been done by JSTARS, and he’s going to start with an architect instead of a program office,” Holmes said. “The architect’s job is to design the network that we will operate under, and so we can make sure that the pieces work in that effort, and instead of doing what we’ve done in the past, which is design a bunch of pieces each with its own communications capability, and try to figure out how to put them together after its too late.”

However, he added a caveat: “Like all our great ideas, we have to find the money for it in a budget that doesn’t have enough to go around.”

Source: https://www.defensenews.com/digital-sho ... e-network/
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Unread post16 Nov 2018, 18:39

While looking for a thread to post this, I almost started a new one, but this seems a decent place to add the thoughts.
- - -
I was reviewing the source writings for some posts here over the last few months, and something occurred to me especially in the details from VMFA 211's combat activities in Afghanistan.

More and more the ISR/SA abilities of the F-35 are being seen as game changing. From detailed accounts of the 211's combat mission.

"In the dynamic insurgent conflict in Afghanistan very small targets are difficult to locate, move quickly and disappear easily. The F-35’s enhanced sensors and ability to immediately share dynamic intelligence across a wide spectrum in all conditions must be key to maintaining situational awareness and providing accurate targeting."

In permissive environments, simply launching an F-35 and having it broadcast on Link-16 et al completely changes the battlefield in ways we've never seen before. As with other such paradigm shifts, these advantages can become addictive to the point of being crippled if you suddenly lose the capability.

I am beginning to equate this with the GPS revolution. Whether it's knowing where your tank is in the desert or precision weapons in weather, we have become dependent on GPS. Now we're having to consider how to fight in GPS denied situations. That's no small thing with our current tactics.

I propose the F-35 SA quarterbacking carries with it similar risks. The excitement of the "gee whiz!" capability will need to be tempered with near peer/denial combat where Link 16 might be restricted for EW/stealth reasons. Just as we are hardening the GPS systems/appoaches(INS et al) we will need to harden (distribute MADL nodes?) our new combat paradigm that has become "game changing."

This is one of those things where, before we get too excited, we need to reconize the new risks that didn't exist before the paradigm shift. F-35 is game changing, but we will need to well consider all aspects of the "changed" game.

MHO, FWIW,
BP
Last edited by blindpilot on 17 Nov 2018, 06:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Unread post17 Nov 2018, 05:29

blindpilot wrote:While looking for a thread to post this, I almost started a new one, but this seems a decent place to add the thoughts.
- - -
I was reviewing the source writings for some posts here over the last few months, and something occurred to me especially in the details from VFMA 211's combat activities in Afghanistan.

More and more the ISR/SA abilities of the F-35 are being seen as game changing. From detailed accounts of the 211's combat mission.

"In the dynamic insurgent conflict in Afghanistan very small targets are difficult to locate, move quickly and disappear easily. The F-35’s enhanced sensors and ability to immediately share dynamic intelligence across a wide spectrum in all conditions must be key to maintaining situational awareness and providing accurate targeting."

In permissive environments, simply launching an F-35 and having it broadcast on Link-16 et al completely changes the battlefield in ways we've never seen before. As with other such paradigm shifts, these advantages can become addictive to the point of being crippled if you suddenly lose the capability.

I am beginning to equate this with the GPS revolution. Whether it's knowing where your tank is in the desert or precision weapons in weather, we have become dependent on GPS. Now we're having to consider how to fight in GPS denied situations. That's no small thing with our current tactics.

I propose the F-35 SA quarterbacking carries with it similar risks. The excitement of the "gee whiz!" capability will need to be tempered with near peer/denial combat where Link 16 might be restricted for EW/stealth reasons. Just as we are hardening the GPS systems/appoaches(INS et al) we will need to harden (distribute MADL nodes?) our new combat paradigm that has become "game changing."

This is one of those things where, before we get too excited, we need to reconize the new risks that didn't exist before the paradigm shift. F-35 is game changing, but we will need to well consider all aspects of the "changed" game.

MHO, FWIW,
BP


We practice for GPS denied, EW, etc... environments.
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Unread post08 Jan 2019, 01:40

This old but recent post about F-35 sensor fusion from a pilot perspective got lost in another thread so to speak so again...

'f4u7_corsair' post From/At: viewtopic.php?f=55&t=6094&p=406567&hilit=fusion#p406567
The F-35 and Data Fusion: A Perspective from the International Fighter Conference 2018
26 Nov 2018 Robbin Laird

"...One of the presenters at the conference was an experienced F-16 pilot who had transitioned to the F-35 in 2010 and has spent several years as a USAF test pilot at Edwards Air Force base and more recently has joined Lockheed Martin in 2016 in a test pilot capacity at Edwards AFB. I had a chance to sit down and talk with Scott “Shark” McLaren about his experience with sensor fusion on the F-35 and his perception of the combat advantages which this provides the F-35 pilot.

The baseline point is that the designers of the F-35 cockpit based on their experiences with the F-16 and the F-22 worked to provide for a visual and work system that significantly reduced the pilot load. Then with the integrated sensor system built into the F-35 the role of data fusion is to provide situational awareness as a service to the pilot and the MADL linked combat force.

This is in contrast to a legacy fighter where the pilot is fusing the data up against a core task such as air superiority or ground attack. In contrast, the fusion system “engine” leaves the F-35 pilot with more flexibility to perform tasks as well as operate in the words of the USAF speaker in the first morning of the conference to provide for strategic inputs as well.... [Then follows a description of what an F-16 pilot must do which takes two years+ to master - best read at URL]

...“With the F-35, this is where the operational capability changes. “With the F-35 you have automation via fusion going on. “That process that is taking the F-16 pilot years to get good at, and almost all of a notional ten-minute engagement time to build a good picture, is being done automatically for the pilot in F-35 fusion.

“That picture is being built. In that same ten-minute scenario, it’s taking less than a minute for all of that information to be presented to him. “He knows the picture. “And that’s without any communication having to go across the formation.

“Your mental processing power which in the F-16 is focused on creating the operational mental picture or SA is now focused on combat tasks and missions. “Your training focus also changes. “Rather than focusing significant training time on how to shape your SA picture, you can now focus on tasks in the battlespace and distributed operations.

“The Commander and the F-35 force can focus on the effects they want to deliver in the battlespace, not just with themselves, but by empowering other combat assets as well by sharing the SA through targeting tasking. “We have the capacity to third party target and to distribute the effects desired in the battlespace. “That becomes our focus of training and of attention; not a primary focus on generating the SA for my organic asset to survive and to deliver a combat effect itself.

Using Shark’s 10 minute operating paradigm where the F-16 pilot is spending 8 minutes of that time period on SA and mission preparation, the F-35 pilot can spend 9 minutes of his time on mission preparation and distributed operations if so tasked. Shark concluded: “For the F-35 pilot, training will now need to include how you go out and influence the battle area the best for the commander?

“And that’s going translate up to what the commander needs to give in direction, but also back down to what the pilot needs to know. “And that training is part of a larger joint exercise, a larger concept of operations for the joint force which gets at the strategic impact of the F-35, which the USAF BG [Brigadier General?] discussed in the conference.”..."

Graphic: https://sldinfo.com/wp-content/uploads/ ... .15-PM.png

Source: https://sldinfo.com/2018/11/the-f-35-an ... ence-2018/
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Unread post08 Jan 2019, 02:39

Had this been posted here
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Unread post08 Jan 2019, 03:01

Mine Here is here - where is your HERE mein heir? My posted graphic goes with the article post. MINE HERR. A song rite?

Cabaret.Mein Heir https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0JJKKvKNkqU

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Unread post23 Feb 2020, 10:23

OLDie but Goodie - never bothered with ARMADA before.... hmmm.... ANOTHER PDF:
Compendium - Electronic Warfare - June/July 2018 https://armadainternational.com/download/5170/ PDF 4.2Mb

PLUS 'Survivability Through Digital Stealth' four page PDF from: https://armadainternational.com/download/7861/
Lightning Reflexes
07 Oct 2019 Dr. Thomas Withington

"Enhancements to the F-35’s electronic warfare systems will focus on software, firmware and hardware should be completed by 2024.

The contract won in August by BAE Systems to take the Lockheed Martin F-35A/B/C Lightning-II combat aircraft’s AN/ASQ-239 self-protection system to the Block-IV configuration will see a host of improvements added to this apparatus. The AN/ASQ-239 has evolved through several incarnations since BAE Systems commenced its supply of the ensemble in 2005. A number of details regarding the AN/ASQ-239’s architecture exist in the public domain. It is known to contain a radar warning receiver, an electronic support measure to identify and locate hostile emitters, and high gain electronic countermeasures for jamming. The AN/ASQ-239 is said to be capable of both pre-emptive and reactive electronic attack, using both expendables such as chaff, and pre-loaded jamming algorithms to counter specific RF (Radio Frequency) threats. One useful feature is that the equipment can correlate the location of emitters with the aircraft’s Northrop Grumman AN/APG-81 X-band (8.5 gighaertz/GHz to 10.68GHz) fire control radar and Lockheed Martin AN/AAQ-30 optronics system enabling a positive identification of the emitter. Likewise, emitter threat information can be share between F-35s, and other aircraft, using the jet’s Northrop Grumman AN/ASQ-242 Communications, Navigation and Identification system. This carries the Tactical Datalinks (TDL) necessary for the aircraft to share such information, notably the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s Link-16 (960 megahertz to 1.215GHz) TDL protocol.

The aircraft has radar warning receivers on the leading edge of its wings covering frequencies of bands 2, 3 and 4. Two band-3/4 RWRs are positioned close to the wingtips on the aft wing trailing edges and on the aft horizontal stabilisers, with additional RWRs covering band 2 either side of the aircraft’s exhaust. These provide the aircraft with full 360 degree coverage. Although the aircraft is presently configured to detect RF emissions in bands 2, 3 and 4, there is growth potential for this to encompass band-5 threats in the future. Although no details appear to have been publicly released it is thought that the AN/ASQ-239 can detect hostile radars transmitting in a two gigahertz to 20GHz waveband. Enhancements to the AN/ASQ-239 are being performed via a series of block enhancements which confer increasing levels of capability onto the self-protection system.

Todd Caruso, BAE Systems’ director of business development for F-35 solutions, told Armada Analysis that the Block-IV upgrades for the AN/ASQ-239 will mainly focus on “more complex algorithms” for the system’s software alongside improvements to computational speed and power, and reductions in equipment weight, known in the trade as software, firmware and hardware improvements. The block upgrades are being added as part of the F-35’s Continuous Capability, Development and Delivery (C2D2) cycle; a process by which enhancements are added to the aircraft as they mature.

Although BAE Systems commenced work on the Block-IV enhancements in 2016, this recent contract will see these improvements being conferred on the aircraft with the upgrades expected to conclude in 2024. Mr. Caruso added that Block-IV improvements for the AN/ASQ-239 will be retrofitted onto F-35s declared operational, with the capabilities being added to new jets as and when they are built. Block-4 will by no means be the final enhancement to the AN/ASQ-239. Mr. Caruso continues that “the F-35 will continue to modernize its mission systems throughout the lifecycle of the platform. As new capabilities are developed and additional requirements are added to the program, the C2D2 process will bring new capabilities to the jet.”"

Source: https://armadainternational.com/2019/10 ... -reflexes/
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Unread post01 Jul 2021, 14:20

The Swiss decision to buy both F-35 and Patriot raised a question in my mind. I'm wondering if Lightnings can use Patriot data in their fused picture. Not merely as a L16 track mind (this seems obvious) but receiving "raw" radar data from the Patriot system.
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Unread post01 Jul 2021, 14:41

das__kardinal wrote:The Swiss decision to buy both F-35 and Patriot raised a question in my mind. I'm wondering if Lightnings can use Patriot data in their fused picture. Not merely as a L16 track mind (this seems obvious) but receiving "raw" radar data from the Patriot system.


I have not seen this stated anywhere. And while it might be a useful feature in some situations, I am going to turn your question around and ask, "Why would you?" Doing so means the Patriot is radiating, and unless the Patriot is LPI, has given away its position which is bad juju for a fixed ground asset. Wouldn't it be better to have a fourship (or more) pack of Panthers hunt down the aerial targets, but use the Patriot interceptors for the killing, and saving their onboard AIM-120s for when they really need them?
Take an F-16, stir in A-7, dollop of F-117, gob of F-22, dash of F/A-18, sprinkle with AV-8B, stir well + bake. Whaddya get? F-35.
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Unread post01 Jul 2021, 16:22

steve2267 wrote:
das__kardinal wrote:The Swiss decision to buy both F-35 and Patriot raised a question in my mind. I'm wondering if Lightnings can use Patriot data in their fused picture. Not merely as a L16 track mind (this seems obvious) but receiving "raw" radar data from the Patriot system.


I have not seen this stated anywhere. And while it might be a useful feature in some situations, I am going to turn your question around and ask, "Why would you?" Doing so means the Patriot is radiating, and unless the Patriot is LPI, has given away its position which is bad juju for a fixed ground asset. Wouldn't it be better to have a fourship (or more) pack of Panthers hunt down the aerial targets, but use the Patriot interceptors for the killing, and saving their onboard AIM-120s for when they really need them?


Switzerland is mostly vertical, so unless the patriot radar is put on a mountain top, it would be no help for the F-35. The F-35, on the other hand, would have a much better situational awareness, and can hand much better info to the Patriot system.
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Unread post18 Jul 2021, 00:05

Reading this article https://theaviationgeekclub.com/f-35-used-as-elevated-sensor-to-enable-live-fire-of-pac-3-patriot-for-cruise-missile-kill-in-us-army-flight-test/amp/?fbclid=IwAR2ASsMpGY21uMf3UThm_uvvUIQOukY9YVJ2dLHhK4Ao1OsvkryvVCNqXco, I came back to my previous post on this subforum, though the data-sharing's going the other way. Most interesting to me is that the system uses a MADL interface instead of L16:
Linking F-35s to IBCS via the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL) provided enhanced situational awareness and weapons-quality track data to engage airborne targets. The proof of concept demonstration used experimental equipment developed by Lockheed Martin, including the Harvest Lightning Ground Station and IBCS adaptation kit (A-Kit).
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Unread post19 Jul 2021, 01:28

lamoey wrote:Switzerland is mostly vertical, so unless the patriot radar is put on a mountain top, it would be no help for the F-35. The F-35, on the other hand, would have a much better situational awareness, and can hand much better info to the Patriot system.


If it's an attacking 4.5 gen it's coming up a valley floor, not over the mountain tops, and terrain shadowing from emitters as much as possible. Radar on a summit is OK, but only see parts of the adjacent valley floor for limited time against an infiltrating low-level fighter.

Also very predictable from terrain analysis where the emitters would be, and to lob an anti-radiation weapon high to come down vertically on any emitters in those predicted summit locations (with superior sight lines) before you get to them. IMO the Swiss be better served with the radars in key access valley floor locations (there are a limited number of those for attackers), and better chance of hiding them.

In which case the F-35 is the better data supplier above 3,000 ft AGL, and much more likely to see 4.5s approaching those valleys, towards cued Patriot sensors waiting to engage them.

That works well in my mind, at least until OPFOR 5th-gens become commonplace.

If it's an attacking 5-gen, it's coming from anywhere, probably up high, and managing aspect and radial distance plus tweaking noise with own EW, and maybe EW support missile/decoy. LPD/LPI Patriot radar on a summit is not so useful for that context. The F-35A is the best option for working with high-altitude VHF, either ground-based, or on an aircraft, to stop intruders getting far past a border. A national EO network would be useful.

However, it's much more likely it's 4.5th or 5th gens launching 500 km range VLO cruise weapons at them, for which a national EO network, and long range VHF radars, plus AEW AESA, plus F-35A and AAMs are the best tools for that too. An F-35A with an EFT is also the best tool to go long-range to kill cruise missile launching strike aircraft in the originating country.

Seems a good mix for them with the right sensors and weapons.
Accel + Alt + VLO + DAS + MDF + Radial Distance = LIFE . . . Always choose Stealth
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Unread post19 Jul 2021, 09:08

Interesting tidbit from the latest Aerospace Advantage podcast. In a recent exercise 16 F35 (8 x USAF A, 4 x RN/RAF B & 4 x USMC B) operated together on MADL Net. Sounds like they have ironed out the bugs.

https://mitchellaerospacepower.org/epis ... rspective/
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Unread post23 Jul 2021, 15:30

operaaperta wrote:Interesting tidbit from the latest Aerospace Advantage podcast. In a recent exercise 16 F35 (8 x USAF A, 4 x RN/RAF B & 4 x USMC B) operated together on MADL Net. Sounds like they have ironed out the bugs.
https://mitchellaerospacepower.org/epis ... rspective/

There was a Youtube video version. 8) Extract My Favourite Part.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LJXY_z1VBqU
The student F-35 pilots is facing twice as many enemies in Air-to-Air training exercises. (!?) :shock: wow! (No mercy, even for Beginners ! :doh: )
Episode 31 – F-35 Lightning II with Allies and Partners: Pilots' Perspective
July 17, 2021
Episode Summary: In episode 31 of the Aerospace Advantage, F-35 Lightning II with Allies and Partners: Pilots’ Perspective, join host John “Slick” Baum as he speaks to a selection of international pilots who are taking to the sky in the F-35 Lightning II. A core facet of the F-35’s design from day one involved seamless integration with allies and partners. It was always about bringing the advantages of 5th gen combat airpower to a broad team. Today, we are realizing that vision. History demonstrates that nations don’t engage in large scale warfare in a vacuum. So, the way we build and employ airpower capabilities needs to reflect that. Hear from Squadron Leader Stewart Campbell of the Royal Air Force, Lt Col Maurizio “Driver” De Guida of the Italian Air Force, and Lt Col Gert Barend “Razor” Van Woerden of the Royal Netherlands Air Force about what it’s like to bring 5th generation combat aviation to their respective air forces.

@21:17~
Q: now driver one of the things that i remember from our previous conversations is you made it really clear how italy and the italian air force have embraced the f-35.
and it is truly operational and the squadrons are full up but it's not just from a flying standpoint.
the maintenance and logistics are full up and the fact that you guys produce parts assemble the f-35 in italy and have complete depo level maintenance capability is really really huge for the state of the program.
so what does this really mean to you since you've been there the whole time.

A: well slick when you enter the the fighter squadron there is a sentence that somebody imagine the future somebody else leaves the future.
actually thanks for putting me as one of the the pilots that first flew the f35 but i think that today's results are proving a great air force uh vision uh already 15 20 years ago where strategic choices were made at that time and we entered the f-35 program as partners we invested as an air force and as a country a lot on f35 enterprise.
so that's why today we have so many firsts uh results that we are obviously proud and for us for our air force f35 so far is a successful story.
we started with the first vehicles assembled in italy uh in early 2014 first flight in 2015 bringing the first atlantic uh flight to bring the jets in us.
and then the first the continental united states country to fly the jet in italy in 2016.
and we started the very fast development of f35 capability inside the air force uh began becoming the first initial operational achieving the first uh initial operational capability in 2018.
actually as we speak uh we have jets that are in estonia and this is the first deployment of f-35 within uh nato uh first two being in iceland in 2019.
so yes it's a long story it's a successful story uh we embraced the fifth generation transformation effort inside the air force.

Q: yeah it is really unbelievable you all have done in italy and you've really been leading the program in europe which is super exciting.
so after you get 5th gen you've got to train in it and one of the things i want to ask you guys about was the 5th gen training requirements.
and basically how fifth generation changes your training requirements and i really want to know what you think is going to be the best way to leverage the international partners to achieve a vision that the international program was based on so we'll start with you stu.

A: so fundamentally the way that the situational awareness the jet gives you uh makes you so much safer.
and so much more aware than we ever were in in 4th gen fighters and suddenly large scale exercises and ultimately large-scale combat.
and becomes far easier for even a junior wingman to deal with so we train our guys from very early on to be a minimum of four ship or a division.
and then that then transfers through onto the front line from what we're doing every day into um really prioritizing uh large force exercises uh as much as possible.
it really is where f35 comes the fore especially as i mentioned before that integration with 4th gen just to increase that combat mass bring the situational awareness to 4th gen employ their weapons first.
and and control the fight so um and that's all brought by by our sensors.
and the way we train across a nation um is also phenomenal which makes us all kind of um we we all train and then ultimately then fight from from the same songbook.
uh so to speak and um where that i have seen that come to four just just in the deployment where i'm right now with the U.S. marine corps is um we will at times um if we were to fly an eight ship uh so for U.K. for us for uh U.S. marine corps.
and take a kneeboard card from from the U.S. squadron and if one of their guys fell out we would just slot forward and uh the uk guy would be dash 2-3-4 and and fight just as the U.S. marine corps pilot would so that cross nation um training and then ultimately employment is uh fundamental to uh to our aircraft.

Q: awesome well razer do you mind to hop in here and share some thoughts on that ?

A: yeah sure so the way that 15 changes the requirements for training is a little background obviously most european countries bought the f-35 as a replacement for the f-16.
and we bought it because we need a an airplane which is more survivable in a super lethal environment.
so that's what we did and therefore you need to change the way you train to that as well for example for air-to-air missions.

it was common in f-16 to do 2vs1 2vs2 maybe a 4vs2.
and now as an indication the very first technical intercept air story that mostly our students do is a 2vs4 so two blue air f35 versus four enemy aircraft and that's that's the baseline.
and that's that's mostly driven just to challenge the pilots enough to get the train because otherwise it's just not challenging enough so we train to overwhelming rather enemy forces and they are still super capable of doing that.

and the same thing goes for the service threat.
the f-35 is built as an offensive counter-air platform built for suppressor many enemy air defenses.
so we would like to train to those as well you know uh future or modern surfs air missile systems.
and that's that's a challenge i feel that's at least in europe the case.
in legacy platforms we never train to that so there's no ranges for that there's no surface-to-air emitters where we can train to.
and there's ways to go around that with embedded virtual training if you will that so it's displayed in the carpet.
but it's not really there but to truly test and train to all the the capabilities of the jets we have we need true emitters
and that's something i know there's there's the pro programs going forward to get that going into europe but that's where we're truly relying on.
integration and partners we work together to build and use emitters simultaneously mostly in europe because that's a challenge.

Q: yeah well as a former wild weasel i definitely would rather do a seed mission in an f-35 than the f-16.

A: (LoL)

Q: i can tell you that much so now driver i hear italy really has been making strides in f35 training.

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