The F-35B was the only model designed to carry ASRAAM internally and to have the avionics mod to use it.
All three F-35 models share the same avionics. In fact, the exact same software build is loaded into each.
btw, one of the issues with using ASRAAM internally on the F-35 (and the desire to use a trapeze launcher to lower it into the slipstream in order to get a nice clear view) is that ASRAAM has NO datalink for midcourse updates (IIRC).
Yup - and the AA station is identical in each case - it's the air to ground station that is perhaps different on the B vs A and C? So, you'd have to clear the store for separation but all else would be identical.
ASRAAM can do LOAL so it doesn't *need* to see the target, but it gets that LOAL capability by predicting the target position from the pre-launch information. Frankly, unless you and the target were the only things around for 20 km, I suspect I'd worry a bit about using a LOAL shot in case the thing scampered off and T-boned something else.