Lockheed Martin Follows ‘Blueprint’ To Drive Down F-35 Costs

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Unread post12 Jun 2015, 18:08

Long article lots of criticism at the URL that we know about already.
Lockheed Martin Follows ‘Blueprint’ To Drive Down F-35 Costs
12 Jun 2015 Bill Carey

"Lockheed Martin (Chalet 316) is taking steps to improve its manufacturing processes for the F-35 Lightning II. The company contends that more efficient manufacturing methods will help it drive down the flyaway cost of the fifth-generation fighter by $10 million by 2019, and by more if the U.S. government invests.

Last July, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), Lockheed Martin and its industry partners Northrop Grumman and BAE Systems announced the “blueprint for affordability” accord to reduce the unit recurring flyaway cost of the F-35 to a price that compares with current fourth-generation fighters. The agreement required the contractors to invest $170 million over two years on new materials and processes, with Lockheed Martin spending the majority of that amount. If they succeed in significantly reducing the fighter’s unit cost, the U.S. government has the option of investing another $300 million over three years, which it would recoup by paying less for the F-35....

...Martin outlined several manufacturing process changes and resulting cost savings. Previously, Lockheed Martin applied stealth coatings to the diverterless supersonic inlet “bump” in the F-35’s engine intakes as a separate process in its paint shop; going forward it will perform “mold-in-place” coatings using a robotic arm to inject the coatings through a precise mold around the jet. The new approach allows work to continue on other parts of the aircraft. It required an investment of $742,000 and saves $6,000 per jet, or potentially $27 million over the life of the program, says the manufacturer.

Materials applied to the F-35’s wingtip leading edges and horizontal tail trailing edges are placed in a vacuum bag and cured in autoclaves. A new “closed-volume composite molding” process uses matched metal tools for each surface part, reducing the labor and time required to treat the different pieces. The new approach required an investment of $493,000 and saves $10,000 per jet.

Lockheed Martin will employ cryogenic machining in its manufacturing process, using compressed liquid nitrogen to cool drill bits in place of oil-based chemicals. The new approach, which involves an investment of $119,000, rids chemical residue and extends tool life and production speed, saving an expected $4,000 per jet.

A relatively low-tech change will save $65,000 per shipset on the F-35 conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant, Martin said. The manufacturer now uses “right sized” aluminum forgings for the CTOL bulkhead. In the past, it acquired 13,000-pound aluminum sections and forged them in a steel die; now, it uses 8,300-pound pieces that more closely approximate the size of the actual bulkhead. “This is a maturity improvement, but we had to change the engineering drawings. We had to get it approved, and it bought its way onto blueprint,” Martin said.

Lockheed Martin was also collaborating with engine manufacturer Pratt & Whitney and F-35B lift fan supplier Rolls-Royce to drive down engine costs, Martin said. Separately, Pratt & Whitney reports that it has waged a “war on cost” to reduce the price of the F135 turbofan since 2009. From the time it built the sixth flight-test engine to those it is producing today, the engine manufacturer claims to have reduced the cost of the F135 by 55 percent.

As of March 31, Pratt & Whitney had delivered 217 F135 engines to Lockheed Martin in Fort Worth and the Cameri Final Assembly and Check-Out facility west of Milan, Italy, that is assembling F-35s for that country and the Netherlands. It was negotiating with the JPO for its own blueprint for affordability that will start after the 300th engine, said Mark Buongiorno, Pratt & Whitney F135 program vice president. “In raw terms, the blueprint for affordability is incentivizing us to continue to make investments in cost reduction with a defined mechanism to recoup that investment,” he explained...."

Photo Caption: [LOOKS TO ME AS THOUGH THE WRONG CAPTION HAS BEEN APPLIED TO THIS PHOTO: http://www.ainonline.com/sites/default/ ... -apr15.jpg "A robotic arm applies coatings to the diverterless supersonic inlet “bump” in the F-35’s engine intakes. (Photo: Lockheed Martin)"


Source: http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/ ... f-35-costs
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Unread post13 Jun 2015, 03:00

I saw this while I was at lunch today and thought it was in general remarkably balanced. Yeah they brought up the unrelated GAO hit piece, but without any of the overwrought voices of 'doom' -- and they included the official response to the GAO 'report'. I thought i was a palate cleanser compared to the usual drivel coming out of other venues. I should contrast this report with the latest 'FAIL' out of "Axe is Boring''. In fact, I think I will.
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Unread post03 Jul 2016, 23:29

Six page PDF of entire article attached - only beginning paragraphs below excerpted.
AFFORDING THE F-35
Michael Peck JULY-AUGUST 2016

"Lockheed Martin projects that the Blueprint for Affordability, a set of production improvements for the F-35, will bring cost reductions of nearly $2 billion to the program as it progresses. With the blueprint funds nearly all spent, Michael Peck spoke to analysts and Pentagon officials about whether the blueprint can meet its goals.

Two years ago, Lockheed Martin and the Pentagon made a deal over the F-35 strike fighter. Lockheed Martin and its partners, BAE Systems and Northrop Grumman, would invest their own money into the F-35 manufacturing line.

If the price of each new F-35 dropped enough, then the production team would receive a financial reward from the Pentagon. How much lower the price would have to be, and how great the reward, have not been disclosed by the U.S. government or the manufacturers. But if the cost reductions prove to be great, the government might then have evidence and confidence to warrant spending tax dollars to introduce even more efficiency into F-35 production. Should that happen, according to Lockheed Martin, American taxpayers would pay less for a cutting-edge aircraft, and Lockheed Martin would generate more sales and ultimately more profit for shareholders.

The Blueprint for Affordability is an attempt to resolve a chicken-or-egg conundrum endemic to all manufacturing: Making a product that can be priced affordably requires expenditures in the manufacturing process, but few are will ing to invest unless they are confident that they will sell enough product to recoup their money. If the blueprint works, it could potentially serve as a template for other troubled programs.

“The concept is absolutely sound in principle and practice,” says analyst Andrew Hunter, director of the Defense Industrial Initiatives Group at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. He cautions that the devil will be in the details of how much money was invested and how much was saved. Other analysts say that while such arrangements are not uncommon in defense acquisitions, it’s a little late to save a lot of money for the F-35, which entered limited production in 2006...."

Source: AEROSPACE AMERICA/JULY-AUGUST 2016
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Unread post04 Jul 2016, 05:00

spazsinbad wrote:Six page PDF of entire article attached - only beginning paragraphs below excerpted.
AFFORDING THE F-35
Michael Peck JULY-AUGUST 2016

"Lockheed Martin projects that the Blueprint for Affordability, a set of production improvements for the F-35, will bring cost reductions of nearly $2 billion to the program as it progresses. With the blueprint funds nearly all spent, Michael Peck spoke to analysts and Pentagon officials about whether the blueprint can meet its goals....


Few quick observations on that article.
One, the author seems to be making a genuine effort to rise above the usual snarkfest he (cough..warisboring..cough) and others to date have dribbled out on their keyboards these past years. It is pretty obvious the author struggled with the important differences between a multi-year contract and a block buy: he seemed to blur the lines. The second thing is as soon as I read the 'but other analysts say'part I knew Richard Aboulafia was in the mix. When I want to know something about the financial ramifications of the next big airliner leasing contract, I listen to Aboulafia. When he talks about military aircraft development, production, and acquisition I want to pat him on the head and tell him to go away. He made his mark as a "go to" guy for commercial aircraft and airline industry media soundbites and appears to have solidified his position at Teal on that basis alone. I say that because I can't think of him ever getting something about a military project right, much less profound. Anybody else ever read something about a mil jet that gave you any sense of competence from the man? Maybe I'm missing those articles, but I find it hard to believe with gems like Aboulafia's comment on the number of F-35s being bought before Full Rate production:
“You’re seeing a lot of aircraft purchased under LRIP, more than any other aircraft in history. I’ve never seen anything like this.”

If Richard knew anything about what he commented on he might have pointed out the time duration and not the number of aircraft. By law LRIP quantities are capped by a percentage (10%) not raw numbers, and even that limit can be and is often waived by going through the right mother-may-I rituals. The relevance of the point that Aboulafia hasn't seen these kinds of LRIP numbers is because he hasn't seen a planned multi-thousand aircraft buy in his lifetime seems to escape his keen analytical mind.
Third, cost savings ahead of time are called cost avoidance and it's always an 'estimate' because you can never tell what would have happened with certainty on a path not taken, nor can you tell what brick walls you will discover by changing course to something new. It HELPS the quantification of savings by having gone down a path, found what you can change, and still have time to change it for quantifiable cost deltas. Clearly, it is one of one of the unacknowledged Concurrency Dividends that go on balance against whatever negatives the 'Concurrency' scaremongers like to urp out.
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Unread post11 Jul 2016, 17:07

Phase II Cost Reductions Announced at Farnborough 2016
11 Jul 2016 LM PR Farnborough International Airshow

"Today, the Department of Defense announced two initiatives with industry to reduce F-35 Lightning II production and sustainment costs.The first is a two-year extension of the “Blueprint for Affordability for Production,” program announced in 2014 and the second is the creation of a similar concept to reduce the operation and sustainment costs of the F-35 weapon system.

The initiatives are built upon the U.S. Government’s Better Buying Power initiatives, which encourage defense contractors and the USG acquisition community to determine new and innovative ways to reduce the cost of their goods and services.

The F-35 Blueprint for Affordability for Production program is a shared commitment between government and industry to drive down F-35 unit recurring flyaway cost by incentivizing production cost reduction initiatives, with a goal of achieving a target price of $85M (TY$) for the air vehicle by 2019.

Blueprint for Affordability is using an initial industry capital investment by Lockheed Martin in coordination with major partners Northrop Grumman and BAE systems of $170 million for fiscal years 2014 through 2016.

As of the end of April, the team allocated $146 million of the planned $170 million towards 193 approved projects with another 75 still in process. These 193 projects are expected to save $1.15 million per aircraft in LRIP 9 and $1.7 million per aircraft in LRIP 10, resulting in a savings of $227 million, and a resulting lifecycle savings of more than $4 billion over the remaining production run of the aircraft.

During the next two years, industry will invest the remaining $24 million from the original program and add up to an additional $170 million to continue the production cost reduction initiatives.

The second initiative builds on this cost saving momentum. Called the Sustainment Cost Reduction Initiative, the three companies are investing up to $250 million targeting FY2018 – FY2022 to reduce sustainment costs by 10 percent. This initiative projects at least a $1 billion savings for the five year period.

“The 2014 Blueprint for Affordability agreement is a success and a significant move forward in our business approach within the F-35 program,” said the Honorable Frank Kendall, Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. “The additional two year investment by industry to further reduce production costs will help bridge us to the planned Block Buy. The sustainment initiative is also an accelerator to help us achieve our goal of an overall 30 percent O&S lifecycle cost reduction.”

As with the initial agreement, industry will only recoup its investment and fee once the accrued savings are verified and below certain thresholds.

Blueprint for Affordability initiatives took many forms. Some were focused on increasing efficiency on factory floors such as improving tooling or modifying assembly instructions. Some automated very labor intensive artisan processes such as robotic injection molding of thick build coatings instead of spraying and thermoforming of transparency shells using hydraulics instead of hand-tightened clamps.

In addition to unit recurring flyaway cost savings generated by production affordability initiatives, additional benefits are being realized. A number of projects funded to reduce individual part cost will also contribute to reduced spare part costs. Where applicable, lessons learned improving efficiency on the factory floor are being transferred to the field and depots.

More than 20 sub-tier suppliers received funds for improvements under this program beyond the improvements made at Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and BAE Systems."

Source: https://www.f35.com/news/detail/phase-i ... rough-2016
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Unread post11 Jul 2016, 17:12

Pentagon unveils new cost-cutting initiatives for F-35 fighter jet [MORE AT THE JUMP]
11 Jul 2016 Andrea Shalal

"The U.S. Defense Department on Monday extended by two years a project that has cut the cost of Lockheed Martin Corp's F-35 fighter plane by more than $1 million per jet, and kicked off a similar project to cut operating and maintenance costs.

The Pentagon's F-35 program office is working closely with industry to drive down the cost of the jets - now running just over $100 million per jet - to around $85 million by 2019....

...The project funded 193 separate initiatives, of which 75 were still in process. The investments are expected to save $1.15 million per aircraft in the ninth production lot, and $1.7 million in the 10th. Over the life of the program, the changes will save around $4 billion, according to the F-35 program.

Over the next two years, the companies have agreed to invest $24 million left over from the original program, and up to $170 million more on continued work to lower the cost of the jets, the program office said.

In addition, the three companies agreed to invest up to $250 million in projects aimed at cutting the cost of operating and maintaining the jets, with a goal of saving $1 billion over a five-year period, the F-35 program office said....

...Kendall said the separate program to cut operating costs would help the Pentagon achieve its goal of lowering the overall lifecycle cost of the program - now estimated to be over $1 trillion through 2070 - by 30 percent.

Bennett Croswell, who heads the military engines business of Pratt & Whitney, a unit of United Technologies which makes the F135 engine that powers the F-35, said his company would also set new cost-cutting targets after completing the engine's development program by the end of this month...."

Source: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-airsh ... SKCN0ZR15A
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Unread post16 Jul 2016, 15:11

F-35 rises above industrial challenges FLIGHT International 19-25 July 2016 PDF page attached.
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Unread post16 Jul 2016, 16:56

With the Skunk works effort now firmly established across the USAF and USN, it would make sense to have a BLUEPRINT for Rapid capability Insert in order to develop capability faster compared to the current block schedule. Since the announcement of the Cyber Pod, we haven't seen it in any block 4 sub-block so such an effort may well be underway. The Navy Next Gen Jammer is their prototype program for the skunk works effort.
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Unread post18 Feb 2017, 18:17

A Dime a Day Drives Cost Away
February 15, 2017

Mark Hebert recognizes that small improvements add up to big savings. As an F-35 operations engineer on the flight line at the Fort Worth, Texas, F-35 assembly plant, Mark dedicates his days to finding simple solutions to simple problems.

A lot of the ideas he explores for improvements are based on suggestions brought up during regular Performance Management Team (PMT) meetings.
The PMT program was initiated by Lockheed Martin in 2014 to give front-line workers an opportunity to efficiently share their cost-saving and process improvement ideas to leaders in the company who can more quickly affect change.

“PMTs are an enabler and facilitator to enact quick responses to mechanics' suggestions and ideas that improve their daily tasks,” Mark explains.

Recently, an aircraft mechanic on the delivery operations team pointed out a simple issue involving the F-35C and brought it up in a PMT meeting. Because of its distinctly larger wings – 40 percent larger, to be exact – the F-35C requires different stands than the A and B variants. These stands are stored in a large hangar on the flight line, and the team struggled to quickly determine which stands were for the C variant from a distance, forcing them to search through the hangar until the correct stand was identified.

Mark and the team devised a simple solution to add red safety foam along the diagonal support to the F-35C stand in addition to the traditional yellow safety foam. This change came at a minimal cost and did not require large amounts of paperwork or approvals to implement; and as a result, the crew can now see the stand from a much further distance, which saves 45 minutes of maintenance time per F-35C.

“This is a great example of what we call nickel-and-dime savings,” Mark said. “They’re everywhere, and at full-rate production these small improvements really add up to a large, cumulative, sustainable savings.”

Sometimes it isn’t radical changes in business practices that make the difference – sometimes it’s as simple as using red foam.
https://www.f35.com/in-depth/detail/a-d ... -cost-away
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Unread post18 Feb 2017, 20:52

zerion wrote:
A Dime a Day Drives Cost Away
February 15, 2017

... Mark dedicates his days to finding simple solutions to simple problems.... A lot of the ideas he explores for improvements are based on suggestions brought up during regular Performance Management Team (PMT) meetings.
The PMT program was initiated by Lockheed Martin in 2014 to give front-line workers an opportunity to efficiently share their cost-saving and process improvement ideas...
Sometimes it isn’t radical changes in business practices that make the difference – sometimes it’s as simple as using red foam.


I love this! It is an example of why I am always cautious of "PMI" / "Gant chart" style program management slavery. At the extreme the above solution would require "submission of the approach with a 3 D picture to a Program Review board." etc. etc. I never did that and never will.

Another example that "never got program review/approval," but ensured on cost on schedule completion.
When we "rebuilt Beale AFB" for the U-2`s and dumping the B-52s and Nukes, there was a lot of civil construction. There was a budget for that construction work.

We took standard CE forms and used an orange highlighter to color the edges anytime we had a program CE project request. There was no approval or even presentation of this process.We simply said, "if it is orange" (you could use a crayon, to scribble on the paper) that request would go to the top of the pile, head of the line, and we`d pay for it. That word got out and everyone knew it would expedite their pet project. A few got their hands slapped for trying to get a wet bar in the dorms and such, but surprisingly that shook out quickly (when the offenders were hung from the flag pole by their ....well you get the picture) To this day that change (orange forms) was never approved or documented, yet was a major contributor to the completion ahead of schedule and under budget. It literally saved months and millions.

FWIW,
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Unread post02 Mar 2017, 11:33

Lockheed Martin F-35 reliability pulled down by early versions - U.S. official
28 Feb 2017 Jamie Freed

"The overall reliability of Lockheed Martin Corp's F-35 fighter jets is being pulled down by initial versions of the aircraft which do not perform as well as more recently delivered jets, the Pentagon's head of the F-35 programme said on Tuesday.

The programme has experienced extensive delays and cost overruns, but the price per jet has steadily declined as production increased, Lieutenant General Chris Bogdan of the U.S. Department of Defense said at Australia's Avalon Airshow. As U.S. President Donald Trump pushes Lockheed Martin and its suppliers to cut costs, Bogdan said the price per jet should fall to $80 million by 2020 from $94.6 million at present.

The first F-35 aircraft were delivered to the U.S. military in 2011. With some of those earlier aircraft, production advances means they underperform newer models, Bogdan said.

"Unfortunately today the aircraft reliability and maintainability of the airplane is what I would call flat," he said. "It is not bad. It is just not getting a whole lot better really fast. You separate out their (Lockheed Martin's) good airplanes, they are getting better, faster. But not if you include the older airplanes. We have to work on that." "Eventually when we modify those older airplanes up to the standards of the newer airplanes we will have a fleet that is fairly robust," Bogdan told reporters.

The Royal Australian Air Force took delivery in 2014 of two F-35s, which are being used to train pilots, and which are scheduled to be fitted with the latest technology. "We already have started to undertake some modifications done in later aircraft," said Air Vice-Marshal Leigh Gordon....

...Lockheed Martin's F-35 Communications Director Mike Rein told Reuters the aircraft maker had always expected the jets would get progressively better as design and software matured. "The good news is the older jets will all be updated to be on par with jets we're building today," he said.

Source: http://in.reuters.com/article/airshow-a ... NL3N1GD2GZ
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Unread post23 Mar 2017, 09:08

Lockheed’s Not Cutting F-35 Costs Enough, But We Know How: Assad, Bogdan [BEST READ DETAILS at SOURCE]
22 Mar 2017 Sydney J. Freedberg Jr.

"WASHINGTON: Two top Pentagon officials laid out a multi-pronged push to lower the price of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter below $80 million apiece. The chief of the F-35 Joint Program Office, Lt. Gen. Chris Bogdan, and the director of defense pricing, Shay Assad, are underwhelmed by contractor Lockheed Martin‘s cost reduction efforts so far. Instead, they said, contractors need to invest more of their own money in reducing cost — with suitable incentives from the government — and streamline the byzantine supply chain.

Meanwhile on the government side, under President Trump’s orders, Defense Secretary Jim Mattis is reviewing both how to reduce the cost of F-35 overall and whether to replace some of the Navy F-35C variants with cheaper but less stealthy Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornets.

“The F-35C model vs the F-18 (review), that’s drawing nearer to end but it’s not over yet,” Bogdan said. He’s submitted data on the F-35’s current and projected performance, cost to procure, and cost to operate, he said, which is now being reviewed against Super Hornet data provided by the Navy....

...As for the F-35 program in general, Bogdan’s staff has prepared a compendium of ongoing, planned, and possible cost-cutting initiatives, he said, and “that compendium is up for review with the secretary as we speak.”

Speaking separately but largely in synch at the McAleese/Credit Suisse conference here, Bogdan and Assad laid out a multi-pronged approach to cut the stealth fighter’s cost. The previous price goal was to get the cost of the basic F-35A down from $95 million in the latest contract to $80 to $85 million by 2019. Today, said Bogdan, “the new goal we’ve set is that in 2020, an A-model airplane — with engine, in 2020 dollars — is going to be below $80 million.” (The Air Force F-35A is the simplest of the three variants). He also wants to reduce the cost to fuel and maintain the aircraft, its Cost Per Flight Hour, by about a third.

Throughout that period, production will be ramping up with unprecedented speed, to 170 aircraft a year, which should create economies of scale — both production efficiencies and block-buy contracts — but those savings by themselves are insufficient, said Assad. “It’s not the simple concept of, ‘well, we just increase the rate and that reduces the cost.’ That’s not what this is about,” Assad said. “This is actually reducing the cost of building the product.”...

...None of this hardball on price implies any lack of commitment to F-35, which former critic-in-chief took pains to praise in his State of the Union speech: “We’ve saved taxpayers hundreds of millions of dollars by bringing down the price of the fantastic new F-35 jet fighter.”

“JSF is an incredible game-changer from a warfighting point of view,” Assad said today, and he lauded both Bogdan and his predecessor, Vice Adm. David Venlet, for turning the troubled F-35 program around “technically and programmatically” — but, he said, price remains a problem.

“I believe that President Trump was right on the money when he said…F-35 is too expensive and we had to get the cost down. He’s absolutely right,” Assad said. “(F-35) is unique in the sense that the president is focused on it, and I applaud that, I think it’s great.”

Isn’t the F-35 program pretty far along to start cutting the price significantly, one reporter asked. Assad’s reply: “We’re going to buy almost 3,000 aircraft and we’ve only bought 400. That’s not late in the game for me.”

Source: http://breakingdefense.com/2017/03/lock ... ad-bogdan/
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Unread post28 Sep 2017, 01:39

Pentagon targets lower-tier suppliers on new $60M F-35 affordability effort
27 Sep 2017 Valerie Insinna

"WASHINGTON — The F-35 program office and Lockheed Martin are kicking off a second round of cost-cutting initiatives in the hopes of driving unit costs of an A-model to $80 million by 2020, and this time, more focus will be on Lockheed’s expansive supply chain. The Pentagon on Monday awarded Lockheed $60 million for “cost savings projects to reduce the cost of the F-35 joint strike fighter air system.”

On Tuesday, Joe DellaVedova, spokesman for the F-35 joint program office, confirmed that payment would fund the second phase of Blueprint for Affordability, referred to as BFA, which will begin to reap savings as early as the twelfth low rate initial production lot....

...“BFA 2 is aimed at driving production savings deeper into the supply chain,” DellaVedova said, adding that at least 25 percent of the $60 million award has been earmarked for companies other than Lockheed, Northrop and BAE....

...Altogether, Lockheed estimates that the more than 200 projects completed during the first BFA program will save the Pentagon more than $4 billion over the life of the program.

During BFA2, the government will make the upfront investment and also incentivize cost savings, meaning that Lockheed and its suppliers could earn even more money depending on the success of its initiatives.

“It’s a slightly different business model. I would say it doesn’t change things significantly,” Babione said. “I think we have the first half of dozen projects underway,” he added. “There are hundreds of projects that are in the queue that just need to a have the time and energy put [in]. Remember, we had BFA 1, and we got to a point where we ran out of money, but we didn’t run out of projects. So, we just took all the projects that were left over and we dropped them in the hopper at the beginning.”..." [then some cost saving details]

Source: http://www.defensenews.com/smr/equippin ... ty-effort/
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
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zerion

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Unread post22 Sep 2018, 01:49

Affordability Initiative May Bring F-35 Price Under $80 Million
Sep 21, 2018

Lockheed Martin is in discussion with the F-35 joint Program Office on implementing a third phase of the enterprise’s affordability initiative that could potentially take the airframe price point below $80 million. Greg Ulmer, F-35 vice president and general manager at Lockheed Martin, tells Aviation Week that the second phase of Blueprint for Affordability (BFA), the company’s affordability initiative, will end in September 2019. Now is the time for the company and program to ...

http://aviationweek.com/combat-aircraft ... 80-million
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Unread post27 Sep 2018, 14:28

Full article at above URL now available.... http://aviationweek.com/defense/afforda ... 80-million
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
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