How to construct VL pads for F-35B and lesser aircraft :-)

F-35 unit & base selection, delivery, activation
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 00:47

I'll link to old technical material on this forum about the requirements for the new VL pads for the F-35B. Even though some of the material will refer to MCAS Beaufort I'll guess that the generic construction method will apply to anywhere appropriate (including EngleLand?). Whatever. The 10Mb PDF specifically about the Beaufort pads has a monstrous amount of info so only a few bits will be excerpted here whilst the generic info is immediately below and easy enough to digest....

Some graphics can be attached whilst others not - I dunno?
______________

High Temperature Vertical Landing Pads – Pavement Materials 2012
Authors: L. Javier Malvar 1 (corresponding author) Paul Rossetti 1
"ABSTRACT
The F-35B or short take-off and vertical landing version of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is predicted to subject airfield pavements to extremely high exhaust temperatures, velocities, and heat fluxes during vertical landings (VL). These thermal loadings are much greater than what a conventional Portland cement concrete can withstand, resulting in a high foreign object damage potential from explosive spalling....

...Successful formulations were also tested under V-22 Osprey, F/A-18 Hornet, and AV-8B Harrier exhaust exposure and proved satisfactory as well.

INTRODUCTION | BACKGROUND
Short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, such as the F-35B Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), V-22 Osprey, and AV-8B Harrier, can subject an airfield pavement to extreme exhaust temperatures during vertical landing (VL) events. In addition, modern aircraft and internal or auxiliary power units (e.g. F/A-18] produce relatively high sustained thermal loads on pavements. Previous studies showed degradation of conventional PCC pavement surfaces from repetitive thermal exposures after a few months of service with maximum pavement surface temperatures as low as 325°F (163°C) [1,2]. Pavement failures can be attributed to the following causes:

1) The creation of large compressive thermal stresses parallel to the surface, which would produce not only concrete crushing, but also a bulging instability, similar to buckling, of the top layer. These horizontal compressive stresses are accompanied by vertical tensile stresses that start to build up below the surface [3].

2) A significant reduction of the concrete strength due to spilled oils which decompose the cement paste at high temperatures [4, 5, 6]. Coupled with the thermal stresses these can result in surface spalling after a few months of repetitive exposures to F/A-18 (or B-1) auxiliary power unit (APU).

3) At higher temperatures, such as those generated by the AV-8B or the JSF core (main) engine exhaust (during a VL) the very high internal pressures caused by the heating of entrapped water, water vapor, and air, can result in immediate spalling [1, 7]. This third failure mode has been reported to occur when the pavement temperature reaches the critical point of steam around 705ºF (374ºC) and the generated pore pressures increase dramatically [8]. Previous research by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Engineering Service Center (ESC) showed that spalling could occur even prior to that, around 500ºF [9]. Spalling from trapped water is expected to be a primary mode of failure for JSF VL operations.

4) For such high temperatures, a fourth mode of failure can be aggregate or paste decomposition, if the aggregate is not heat resistant, or if the paste cannot sustain the high temperature.

PAVEMENT MATERIALS
Approach
...
...2) Materials developed in-house were assessed for suitability. In particular lightweight concrete mixes used previously for the AV-8B were assessed. While these mixes had shown deterioration under actual JSF engines, this deterioration was very superficial.

...- Since spalling from trapped moisture is expected for concrete temperatures starting around 500 to 705°F (260 to 374°C), and 500°F could develop at depths as low as 0.04 inches, very thin layers of pavement are expected to spall at each cycle, until aggregates are dislodged.

- While spalling is expected approximately within the projected nozzle area, the heat flux is at a maximum along the edge of the projected nozzle area, and spall initiation could be expected there....

...REINFORCEMENT
Standard airfield concrete pavements are typically constructed with small concrete slabs separated by joint sealants which allow for temperature and curling movements. For the JSF no known joint sealant has been found that can survive the main engine exhaust temperatures during a VL. Hence, the 100 by 100 ft (30.5 by 30.5 m) pads, which were constructed as five 20 by 100 ft (6.1 by 30.5 m) lanes do not include any joints (except for the construction joints between the lanes, which are kept closed) (Fig. 3). Instead this area is constructed of continuously reinforced concrete (CRC) in both directions (Fig. 4). This prevents the possibility that the jet exhaust could get into a construction joint and erode the subgrade. This is also a concern because a pressure differential of 1 psi will lift a 12-inch thick concrete slab. The VL pad is surrounded by a 50-ft wide safety zone which is constructed with standard jointed concrete slabs. In the safety zone ablative joint sealants are used, which can survive a limited number of exposures to VL landings – this is deemed sufficient since the aircraft is not supposed to land there except in an emergency. The safety zone is surrounded by a 10-ft shoulder (Fig. 3 and 5)....

...CONCLUSIONS
High temperature pavement materials were developed which can withstand 500 exposures to the main engine exhaust of the JSF. An Engineering Technical Letter (ETL 10-4) and an interim Unified Facilities Guide Specification (UFGS 32 13 99) were developed which summarize the materials and VL pad construction requirements."

https://transportation.wes.army.mil/tsw ... 0Paper.pdf (400Kb)

http://i98.photobucket.com/albums/l261/ ... dSMALL.gif

Image
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The info about MCAS Beaufort will follow after a delay due to grahics not able to be attached here again.... Otherwise an incredible amount of info about this topic (including 'how to make them') is in the 10 Mb PDF here:

VERTICAL LANDING PADS FOR THE F-35B MCAS Beaufort

http://www.proconstructinc.com/jobs/TEA ... 1_OF_4.pdf (10.5Mb)

http://i98.photobucket.com/albums/l261/ ... dSMALL.gif

Image
______________

ONLY a CLICKable thumbnail BElow here because otherwise the image is TOO LARGE for this forum ease of viewing....

Image
Attachments
PlanViewDrawingVLpad.gif
Last edited by spazsinbad on 05 Apr 2013, 01:46, edited 6 times in total.
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 00:59

So most F-35B's will not be doing regular vertical landings?

They'll probably do some form of short landing?
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 01:25

What is the 'So'? The topic of "most F-35B landings will not be vertical has been covered at length". Search the forum. However the USMC F-35Bs will practice all kinds of landings - including vertical because that is they way they will operate at sea. Is that an adequate explanation or do you need more?
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 01:27

That makes sense that the USMC will practice every form of landing.

I'm good, no need for more explanations.

As long as the aircraft gets back safely, the method of landing doesn't really matter IMO.
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 03:31

Going to be interesting watching a future contested amphibious landing. While under attack, the MC will move an entire construction battalion ashore, along with hundreds of tons of concrete, rebar, etc. They'll build multiple landing pads, a 2000' long runway for takeoffs, taxiways, hardened shelters, fuel storage, weapons storage, all while helicopters and carrier launched fighters pass overhead. Once the fueling trucks and generators and bomb jammers and mission planning equipment is ashore and all the concrete has dried, the F-35B will land.

Of course, by that time the battle will have moved a couple of hundred miles away, and they'll have to start the whole process all over again.
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 04:02

You have missed the EARTH 'Meteor'. New doctrine of the USMC (as practised in last Bold Alligator for example) has the USMC returning to the sea for SEA BASED OPs. The mix it up approach will have most landings on flat decks offshore with option for VLs at FOBs ashore on AM-2 Matting (probably being replaced soon by a form of AM-X Matting - I'll get to that later). The USMC are no longer the 2nd LAND ARMY but MARINES!

BTW there are plenty of thread discussions here about this aspect. One acronym to search for would be OMFTS Operational Maneuver From The Sea (Sea Basing) or whatever. However this thread is about 'How new VL pads are constructed at permanent bases in the USofA - are you planning to invade? DUH.
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 04:14

Wow, that feels more Marine like than having them so far inland.
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Unread post05 Apr 2013, 11:15

Relevant Recent Item about USMC focussing on being MARINES....

Marine Corps Will Push for Return to Maritime Roots (UPDATED) Mar/26/2013 By Yasmin Tadjdeh
"Marine Corps officials are eager to return to the service's traditional role of global crisis response force operating from the sea.

Marine Corps Maj. Gen. Kenneth F. McKenzie, the service's director of the Quadrennial Defense Review, said the strategic planning document, due in 2014, would enshrine that wish....

...There’s been a lot of talk over the last few months about the Marine Corps as a second land Army. We’re not. But I think we should all recognize that we don’t need a second land Army,” said McKenzie...

...The Marine Corps' successful performance in Iraq and Afghanistan may have been a double-edged sword, McKenzie said. Marines are so good at fighting on land, their strategic role moved further inland, resulting in entire generations of Marines who have never been on a Navy ship or gotten their boots wet during an amphibious landing.

“The Marine Corps is a naval force. We’re not a land force. It’s easy to lose that distinction because we perform so extremely effectively while we are ashore,” he said. “We see really no appetite, or no drive, anywhere to redefine the Marine Corps as anything other than a naval element of the nation’s portfolio.”

The Marine Corps has long had a close relationship with the Navy, McKenzie said. He pointed to Marines using Navy vessels to launch various missions as one example of the bond. In the future, he wants the service to strengthen that alliance.

“From a Marine Corps perspective … the relationship with the Navy is absolutely vital,” he said.

Clarification: A spokesman for Maj. Gen. Kenneth McKenzie said the general's point that the United States does not need a "second land Army" also applies to naval forces. "While there should not be duplicative things happening on the land side, it also goes the other way on the sea side," McKenzie's spokesman said."

http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/ ... px?ID=1093
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Unread post15 Apr 2013, 07:35

Some precursor info on the Concrete VL Pad Construction / Testing at Eglin AFB....

High Temperature Vertical Landing Pads -
Construction Practices and Lessons Learned
03 Feb 2012

[The PDF at top of this thread was made 31 Jan 2012]
"ABSTRACT
The F-35B or short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) version of the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is predicted to subject airfield pavements to extremely high exhaust temperatures, velocities, and heat fluxes during vertical landings (VL). These thermal loadings are much greater than what a conventional Portland cement concrete (PCC) can withstand, resulting in a high foreign object damage (FOD) potential from explosive spalling. Under sponsorship from the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and the Air Force Civil Engineer Support Agency (AFCESA), the Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NAVFAC ESC) evaluated various heat-resistant pavement materials for use in VL pads. A high temperature concrete (HTC) mixture consisting of heat-resistant aggregate, polypropylene fibers, Portland cement, fly ash, and a topical sodium silicate surface sealant was developed as a potential alternative to conventional PCC.

In preparation for the deployment of the F-35B to Tri-Service installations, a Tri-Service team conducted several small to full-scale demonstrations to transition the ONR technology under sponsorship from NAVFAC Headquarters and AFCESA, to ensure that the concrete mixture developed in the laboratory was viable for full-scale construction. The demonstrations were a preamble to the construction of the first VL pads at Eglin Air Force Base. Data gathered during these demonstrations were used to verify mixture proportioning, identify construction limitations, and further develop guide specifications for construction with this material. This paper is a description of the construction practices and lessons learned from the first construction project involving high temperature resistant concrete VL pads....

...CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
A Tri-Service team, consisting of researchers from the U.S. Navy, Army and Air Force, collaborated to develop a solution for extreme high temperature thermal loadings generated by STOVL aircraft on the airfield pavements. A PCC mixture consisting of lightweight aggregate, polypropylene fibers, portland cement, fly ash, and a topical sealant was selected and used for constructing two VL pads. These pads are currently awaiting aircraft traffic, and will be monitored over time to verify the performance of the PCC mixture. Based on field demonstrations and lessons learned from the first VL pad construction project, the original construction guidance and specification developed by the group was modified and will continue to be a living document, where new materials and construction procedures will be added over time to accommodate construction of these pavement features around the world. The following are a list of guidelines that should be followed when batching PCC with coarse, medium, and fine lightweight aggregates for use in flatwork concrete:..."


https://transportation.wes.army.mil/tsw ... 0Paper.pdf (0.5Mb)
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Unread post27 Jun 2013, 10:48

Looks like a new VL pad (near YUMA?). http://ece.drexel.edu/SeniorDesign/newP ... isting.pdf (4.2Mb)
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Unread post09 Jul 2013, 09:59

Defense Department awards $21M in contracts for Beaufort air base 08 July 2013 Staff Report
"...The second contract, worth nearly $11 million, was awarded to Head Inc., headquartered in Columbus, Ohio, for construction of a simulated landing helicopter flight deck or LHD.

The project calls for the flight deck to consist of high temperature-resistant concrete material; a new landing officer safety officer tower to support F-35 training and operational squadrons; and construction of a simulated aircraft landing deck for short takeoff and vertical landing training.

Work, expected to finish by July 2014, will include airfield lighting and associated electrical upgrades.

The new flight deck “is another key project to prepare MCAS Beaufort for transition to the F-35 Lightning II," said Col. Brian Murtha, the air station’s commanding officer. "It will simulate the conditions of operating aboard an amphibious ship and provide critical training to pilots."

Conducting flight operations and aircraft maintenance from the deck of a ship is a very unforgiving environment, Murtha said, adding that Marines must be ready to do it right the first time.

"This LHD training facility will give MCAS Beaufort the capability to ensure Marines have the proper training for shipboard operations," Murtha said...."
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Unread post19 Jun 2014, 23:28

Some more official info on how to make and not bake dat concrete for continuous F-35B vertical landing useage. Or just make better long lasting concrete with no worries. Now attached.

High Performance Airfield Pavements (HPAP) Dec 2013

https://www.navfac.navy.mil/content/dam ... /Specialty Centers/Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center/PDFs/ci_tech_data_sheets/TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-CI-1402.pdf (100Kb)
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High Performance Airfield Pavements (HPAP) Dec 2013 TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-CI-1402.pdf
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Unread post20 Jun 2014, 02:19

I quote from the document Spaz posted at the link in order to ensure that no one misses the fundamental reason they're building these pads; it's about the long term durability of these things. and ultimately, money. They are a good investment.

"The ROI for a single JSF high temperature concrete VL pad was calculated to be 8.15. Expanding value to the
ten vertical landing pads that have already been built increases the ROI to 49.96. These numbers take into
account the extra initial investment to build and maintain the pads for 30 years compared to having to
constantly replace the pads if conventional concrete is used. The ROI for the ASR part of the project is 36 based on the extension of an airfield pavement life from 12 years to more than 60 years."

Same thing goes for Thermion at the ship. Thermion is actually less effective at thermal insulation than traditional non-skid. It's fundamental benefit is that is it is far more durable, and thus is more effective as non-skid, and saves money over time.
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Unread post20 Jun 2014, 03:07

'qs' Thanks for the quotes - I could add some more - was in a rush earlier.... twas ever thus... :devil:
"...Site Implementation and Specific Applications
Thus far a total of ten high temperature VL pads have been built at Eglin AFB, Duke Field, MCAS Yuma, and MCAS Beaufort with another being planned at MCAS Iwakuni. Simulated carrier decks have been built at Duke Field and MCAS Yuma with another being planned at MCAS Beaufort. ASR [Alkali-Silica Reactivity - SEE Next Post] mitigation techniques are being implemented on all Navy concrete jobs.

As of now the concrete mixes have performed well under laboratory testing. A limited number of vertical landings have occurred on some of the high temperature concrete VL pads and there still has not been damage caused by the JSF...."
Last edited by spazsinbad on 20 Jun 2014, 04:39, edited 1 time in total.
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Unread post20 Jun 2014, 04:27

Some old info just for the hell of it: http://thegreenregister.com/wp-content/ ... ng-Pad.jpg

ChemTec One protecting F-35 / Harrier Fighter Jet Landing Pad

http://thegreenregister.com/high-perfor ... nding-pad/
&
http://www.concretesealer.net/projects.htm (lots of pics)

High Performance Concrete Protection [for the ASR Alkali-Silica Reactivity amongst other fings]
"...[ChemTec One] is a high performance reactive silicate concrete densifier, hardener, sealer and dust proofer – and the uses for this product are absolutely endless. From concrete warehouse and manufacturing floors to driveways, loading ramps, hanger ramps....

...This is actually the “only reactive silicate in the world” that meets both the Ohio and Illinois Department of Transportation specifications for use on bridge decks and structures. Not only is “ChemTec ONE” permanent, but it is also extremely cost effective and offers state-of-the-art protection for concrete structures of all types.

Beginning back in 1995, ChemTec created ‘ONE’ – the must-have, high performance concrete protector. With that creation, not only did they ‘mark’ themselves as innovators behind this new chemistry, but they also proved to be experts....

...“ChemTec ONE” prevents – and, in some cases, reverses – specific areas of deterioration in facilities and structures. It seals the micro cracks of bridge decks and elevated structures like parking structures and bridge pylons. These are just some of the issues that “ChemTec ONE” solves. And whether the project involves new or old concrete, vertical or horizontally oriented, “ChemTec ONE” is the highest-quality product that can be found to keep that concrete in ‘solid’ condition. Not to mention, it stops dusting issues and makes the floor up to 45% harder, which means far more wear and tear can be brought to the area because ChemTec has made sure to increase it’s durability a thousand-fold.

By penetrating the permeable zones in concrete, this process occurs; however, the concrete’s ability to ‘breathe’ remains intact. In other words, an actual by-product in the concrete is created that offers huge benefits not available with regular sealers or coatings. We are talking massive structural enhancement by increasing compression strength, flexibility, surface hardness and mass....

...For those who may be unaware, in the world of geology the term ‘silicate’ stands for types of rock that consist of silicate minerals. A wide variety of natural silicate minerals exist in this world that have been created by melting, crystallization, and weathering, which Mother Nature takes care of. When it comes to ‘manmade’ silicates, such as concrete, it is ChemTec and their processes that have found a way to preserve them....

...What exactly can ChemTec products do? These formulations can reduce porosity up to 90%; increase hardness of both new and deteriorated concrete; reduce water soluble chloride levels, reduce chloride penetration, offer protection from ‘attack’ by salts, solvents and mild acids, AND function as the surface contact corrosion inhibitor for steel.

And when speaking about projects, ChemTec also has a huge list of clients who have discovered “ChemTec ONE” to be the product they had to have in order to save money and gain the knowledge that they were providing people with safety and durability. From protecting a Joint Strike Fighter and F-35 Lightning II Harrier Concrete Landing Pad;...."

Source: http://thegreenregister.com/high-perfor ... rotection/
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