‘Bedford Array’ May Have F-35C Uses After All

Discuss the F-35 Lightning II
  • Author
  • Message
Offline
User avatar

FlightDreamz

Forum Veteran

Forum Veteran

  • Posts: 789
  • Joined: 18 Aug 2007, 17:18
  • Location: Long Island, New York

Unread post16 Jul 2011, 19:06

If adopted by the U.S. the Bedford Array would be just one of many British contributions to carrier aviation (invented by Brits, adopted and refined by the U.S.).
A fighter without a gun . . . is like an airplane without a wing.— Brigadier General Robin Olds, USAF.
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post02 Aug 2011, 15:07

WHAT THE FUTURE BEHOLDS... VX-23 Salty Dogs

http://www.hrana.org/documents/PaddlesM ... st2011.pdf

"C-2, E-2, and Prowler pilots, have you ever made fun of a Hornet guy for declaring an emergency at the boat for a HUD failure? Doesn't everyone realize that the HUD is our primary attitude reference? Have you ever thought less of someone for doing a Mode I? Well things are about to get better or worse, depending on how you look at it. This month's article is about the Tomorrowland projects coming down the pipe.

One of the Navy's UAV programs had its first flight last month at Edwards Air Force Base. Future Navy UAVs will be able to seamlessly integrate themselves into the Case I, II and III patterns with manned aircraft. The Air Boss will have a control screen in Pri-Fly where he can click on “Charlie” and the UAV will sequence itself into the break, come around and land itself on an 'OK' 3-Wire. If the pattern is full, he can click on “Spin It” and around she goes. Aside from giving me job security worries, it sounds really cool.

In the next few years UAVs will be landing autonomous at the boat using GPS technology. Completely autonomous landings at the field and the following first landings at the boat will mark a turning point in Naval Aviation. We have fought for years to keep real FCLPs and not do all our CQ prep in the simulator. If a plane can land itself with the click of a button in any Case and weather you wouldn't have to FCLP, CQ, and maintain day or night currency anymore. The cost savings would be HUGE. With today's tight budgets, auto landings could save tens of millions of dollars. That makes them seem very attractive.

In the future the pilot may fly the tactical portion of the flight but the admin portion of the flight will be automated. The Rhino and JSF can very easily become auto-landers. Auto landings will one day become the standard way to recover on the CVN. A pass flown manually will be an emergency! In the future, it is possible that it may be the first time the pilot has ever done one outside of the simulator. Luckily there are a few technical hurdles to overcome, so don't expect it during our careers.

The first and most important technology required is JPALS (Joint Precision Approach and Landing System). This is the replacement for the ACLS and the TACAN. It's a differential GPS system similar to civilian WAAS approaches. It will be capable of coupled Mode I approaches at the boat and precision approaches at the field. The data link portion will generate TACAN symbology and provide the same information to the airplane that a TACAN receiver supplies. JPALS is a Triplex system with 3 independent paths of communication with the airplane so roughly 1 in 10 million passes would be unreliable. A version of JPALS technology is what will guide UAVs. It is scheduled to IOC in FY 2016.

JPALS will also allow auto landings. But before we can get rid of FCLP and CQ requirements we have to make the Rhino and JSF really, really easy to land at the boat. To do this we need things like the ship stabilized velocity vector I mentioned a few months ago. We may also need to add another lens-type glideslope indicator. One idea is called a Bedford Array. You can see in Figure 1 that a Bedford Array is like a lens spread of over the length of the LA. Unlike an IFLOS which has 12 cells that are always on to create a glideslope reference, the Bedford Array is a set of Christmas lights and only the light corresponding to current position of the touch-down point is illuminated. Just as the dynamic touchdown point moves across the deck on the LSODS screen, the Bedford Array lights would “move” forward and back across the deck corresponding to the dynamic touchdown point. Figure 2 shows what your HUD may look like. You keep the ship stabilized velocity vector on top of the Bedford light that is illuminated. The datum is a reference line in your HUD. As long as the 3 all line up you are on glide path.

A Bedford Array and a ship stabilized velocity are indicators of glideslope that will show you if you are off glideslope more precisely but they still don't make the airplane respond differently. Stick and throttle corrections in any airplane are not instantaneous. You put in an input and some finite time later a response happens. That is why we have rules like never lead a low, always lead a high and never re-center a high ball in close. When you make a power correction in the T-45 it takes several seconds to take effect, a hornet is much faster and the E-2 is even better, but it is still not instantaneous. The F-4 Phantom was supposedly one of the best ball flyers ever. They called the throttle the ball controller. Those huge J79 turbojets had a fast response rate and when on-speed, a lot of the thrust component was in the vertical direction. There are engines being developed with nozzles that can pucker very quickly. By puckering the nozzles, very fast increases in thrust are possible. This can improve the rate of glideslope corrections.

The last improvement for flying glideslope is Direct Lift Control (DLC). Increasing the throttle spools up the engines, this increases the airspeed, more lift is generated and the aircraft climbs. Pulling back on the stick produces down force on the tail, this increases the AOA which produces more lift and the aircraft climbs. These processes that change glideslope all take time. This is why as pilots you learn to anticipate or lead everything. DLC like the name implies is DIRECT lift control. When you actuate it you get a very quick increase or decrease in lift. The F-14 and S-3 both had spoiler-activated DLC. In those two aircraft, the spoilers would be deployed a little bit for the entire approach. When you wanted to go down the spoilers would move up spoiling lift. To go up you retract the spoiler and you get more lift back (the S-3 only had down control). The response is not instantaneous but it is pretty close. The JSF is going to have DLC. Its DLC is incorporated into the flaps and ailerons. When you want more or less lift both ailerons extend or retract very quickly. DLC will be incorporated into the flight control computers so there is no need for a DLC switch on the stick like the Tomcat. The FCCs will decide if you need to move the tail, the ailerons, or both. A similar system could be developed for the Rhino as well. I flew a model of the Rhino in the simulator with DLC and in an autopilot mode similar to FPAH called Glide Path Hold. The simulated ship also had a Bedford Array model. It took me about two seconds to figure out how to fly a rails pass almost hands off.

The first question most people ask is: Why work on the Hornet? It's already a good ball flyer!! While this is true, their are still plenty of ramp strikes and hook slaps that show room for improvement still exists, and the goal is to make it so easy the E*TRADE baby can do it. Some of these systems will be operational in a few years, some may be developed in the future, and some may only be ideas on paper and in the simulator forever. In any case, things will be changing in the future. Even the movie Top Gun 2 is going to be about UAVs. As always any questions or feedback is greatly appreciated."
Dan "Butters" Radocaj
Test Pilot/LSO
VX-23 Ship Suitability
Attachments
BedfordArrayIFLOLSViewLSOaugust2011.gif
PilotBedfordArrayViewLSOaugust2011.gif
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post28 Aug 2011, 20:41

Worth adding/repeating recent info about DAS/HMDS synergy for Night Carrier Ops for F-35C from here:
http://www.f-16.net/f-16_forum_viewtopic-t-15995.html [Emergence Z Axis: Changing Way Airpower Enables Combat Ops]

THREE-DIMENSIONAL WARRIORS

http://www.sldinfo.com/wp-content/uploa ... arrior.pdf (3Mb)

Worth rereading to become more familiar with the DAS advantages and computer training amongst many other things. Here are some quotes that got my attention. DAS + HMDS

"The Distributed Aperture System and 360-Degree Situational Awareness p.24

SLD: How does the new helmet for the F-35 interact with the DAS?
Rossi: The DAS provides 360-degree NAFLIR (Navigation Forward Looking Infrared) capability.
So if you think about it we’re out there staring at the world. We have all this information. We can then take and post-process where the pilot is looking on his helmet. We also have an auxiliary channel where he can dial in any particular sector that he wants to keep track of and we can give him near 20/20 IR imagery of the world about him.

So now night landings on carriers are fully enabled. We show this stuff to Navy pilots and they’re just awestruck that they can even see the horizon, let alone the boat out there and the wake."

http://attach.high-g.net/attachments/da ... ef_287.jpg

FROM: F-35C, EO/DAS, and Night Landings?
http://www.f-16.net/f-16_forum_viewtopic-p-164376.html
FROM: F-35 Tail Hook.ppt (4.6Mb)
http://www.f-16.net/f-16_forum_download-id-12218.html

Image
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post16 Sep 2011, 01:45

Another 'VIEW' (repeated here because of the above view - so youse know)

http://www.sldinfo.com/wp-content/uploa ... ations.pdf
OR
The Distributed Aperture System:
http://www.sldinfo.com/?p=12819
&
http://www.sldinfo.com/?p=10198

"Second Line of Defense [SLD] talked with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems’ Mark Rossi about the Distributed Aperture System (DAS) on the F-35, which together with the helmet provides 360-degree situational awareness for the F-35 pilot. Mark has served as the Director of the AN/AAQ-37 Electro-Optical Distributed Aperture System (EO DAS) for the F-35 platform, having management responsibility for the product development and production of the EO DAS hardware and software....

...Rossi: The biggest problem facing DAS is the fact that it is a complete unknown to most people. But as they become more familiar with its value, they will realize just how revolutionary this system will be for the warfighter. DAS changes the game....

...The capability DAS brings to the fight, however, is new and will significantly change the way the game is played. The services have never experienced anything like the unprecedented capability provided by DAS. While pilots who have witnessed demonstrations of our capability are typically wowed by our imagery and performance metrics, few have any real idea of the magnitude of the capability they are actually receiving with the DAS system.

The key discriminator that DAS brings to JSF is full, 360-degree spherical situational awareness.

We create this bubble around the airplane where we see everything of interest, all the time, simultaneously. Spherical situational awareness will significantly change the game.

SLD: Is this a man-machine interface we’re talking about?
Rossi: Yes, but we make it easy for him. From a situational awareness point of view, the pilot does absolutely nothing. We are monitoring the world around him all the time and then differentiating and reporting things that occur in that global scene that are important to the pilot. It’s only when we determine that something important has occurred that he’ll even know anything’s going on — except, of course, for day/night imagery that is presented to him continually on his Helmet-Mounted Display (HMD) and on his panoramic cockpit display....

...SLD: How does the new helmet for the F-35 interact with the DAS?
Rossi: The DAS provides a 360-degree NavFLIR (Navigation Forward Looking Infrared) capability that is projected on the helmet display. FLIR is an archaic term because FLIR stands for forward looking infrared. We’re not forward looking; we’re everywhere looking. But it’s a term that people are familiar with so we stick with it. So if you think about it, all the information is already being collected as part of the situational awareness and missile warning modes. We simply determine the line of sight of the pilot based on his head position and process the raw image data for enhanced display on the HMD. He can basically see anywhere he turns his head — even if he is looking right through the floor of the plane because we see everything in 360-degree spherical space!

We also provide a separate video feed to the Panoramic Cockpit Display that displays a pilot-selected line of sight, at his discretion. All of this functionality replaces bulky night vision goggles that are significantly challenged in urban lighting situations. When we have demonstrated our NavFLIR capability to Navy pilots, they tend to be awestruck at the possibility of even seeing the horizon clearly, let alone seeing the carrier and its wake.

DAS is going to revolutionize night landings on aircraft carriers
...."
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post21 Oct 2011, 21:37

Flight Control Software to Help Pilots Stick Landings Aboard Carrier Decks
(NAVY NEWS SERVICE 20 OCT 11) ... Grace Jean, Office of Naval Research

www.physorg.com/pdf238342703.pdf (29Kb)
OR
http://hrana.org/news.asp#FlightControlSoftware

"ARLINGTON, Va. -- Select pilots in early 2012 will commence testing new flight control software, funded in part by the Office of Naval Research (ONR), intended to facilitate aircraft landings on Navy carrier decks with unprecedented accuracy.

"The precision that we can bring to carrier landings in the future will be substantial," said Michael Deitchman, deputy chief of naval research for naval air warfare and weapons. "The flight control algorithm has the potential to alter the next 50 years of how pilots land on carrier decks."...

...The new algorithm embedded in the flight control software augments the landing approach. Coupled with an experimental shipboard light system called a Bedford Array and accompanying cockpit heads-up display symbols, the software ties the movement of the pilot's control stick directly to the aircraft's flight path. Instead of constantly adjusting the plane's trajectory indirectly through attitude changes, the pilot maneuvers the aircraft to project a dotted green line in the heads-up display over a target light shining in the landing area....

...If the tests are successful, the software could be integrated aboard current and future aircraft to change the way carrier-based aviators have landed aboard ships for more than half a century... Increasing the precision of landings will boost pilot safety and reduce training requirements necessary to perfect carrier-landing skills. It could lower aircraft life cycle costs by reducing maintenance and avoiding repairs caused by hard landings."
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

neptune

Elite 2K

Elite 2K

  • Posts: 2885
  • Joined: 24 Oct 2008, 00:03
  • Location: Houston

Unread post21 Oct 2011, 22:49

Spaz,

Consider, if the USN were to use the integrated sensors (two out of three voting) IR, Low Level Light and Radar) from the "Sea" missions systems and integrate those inputs with the JPALS. The JFS should be able to reference the throttle for the #3 wire within a couple of hook inches and with the ship gyration accounted far. The algorithm display would be the same as your Bedford array without the added shipboard hardware. The "man-in-the-loop", could be a mode option; thus giving the aviator the computerized "leading" visual reference over the Mark One eyeball, or flip the switch to Auto-Landing similar to the “Bee”. I’m certain that smarter Navy people than I, are working on a similar or better program.
:idea: :salute:
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post21 Oct 2011, 22:57

The Bedford Array was developed originally by the RN for use on their CVF with F-35Bs for SRVLs (or an approach to transition to a vertical landing perhaps). The concept will be adapted as explained above - how that is done will be developed I guess.

JPALS shipborne is going to be very accurate as explained in the JPALS threads. Completely auto landings are very uncomfortable I'm told for the 'spam in the can' and they are not counted by LSO. Pilots need to be able to land manually so to keep in practice most landings will have some manual component (depending on night/day circumstances). The trick today is to get pilots to 'practice' completely automatic landings (for emergencies etc.).

There is an old IFLOS/FLOLS concept that would have the 'rate descent/ascent change' displayed with what is seen now on the OLS (FLOLS/IFLOLS) but that was not developed. The MOVLAS (manually controlled IFLOLS) can be manipulated by the LSO to 'trick' the pilot into a good landing due to dire shipboard conditions). Or in ordinary conditions the LSO manipulates the MOVLAS to mimic the IFLOLS.

My head is starting to hurt now... :D

Glideslope Descent-Rate Cuing to Aid Carrier Landings
LT Charles E. Kaul USN; Stanley C. Collyer
Naval Training Equipment Center; Gavan Lintern Canyon Research Group | Oct 1980

http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Lo ... =ADA092193
Attachments
FLOLSrateInnovation1980.gif
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post23 Oct 2011, 00:39

Trials Ahead for Navy Carrier Landing Software by Armed Forces International's Defence Correspondent 21/10/2011

http://www.armedforces-int.com/news/tri ... tware.html

Slightly different explanation of the new way of doing things: (more or less same press release as first one though)

"..."The flight control algorithm has the potential to alter the next 50 years of how pilots land on carrier decks."

The algorithm is designed to work in tandem with a so-called Bedford Array lighting system positioned on the aircraft carrier and a series of symbols presented in the pilot's HUD (Heads-Up Display). It connects the control stick straight to the aircraft's trajectory with the result that, rather than have to make minute shifts, the pilot directs the aircraft so it beams a fragmented green line in the HUD.

"You're tracking a shipboard stabilized visual target with a flight path reference, and the airplane knows what it needs to do to stay there", Naval Air Systems Command representative James Denham stated, in explanation...."
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

neptune

Elite 2K

Elite 2K

  • Posts: 2885
  • Joined: 24 Oct 2008, 00:03
  • Location: Houston

Unread post23 Oct 2011, 03:22

[quote="spazsinbad..Slightly different explanation of the new way of doing things: (more or less same press release as first one though)......"[/quote]

http://www.onr.navy.mil/Media-Center/Pr ... rrier.aspx

...“It is almost like a video game,” said James “Buddy” Denham, the senior engineer who has been leading the research and development efforts at Naval Air Systems Command...... :wink:

The ONR version is a bit more "techie", enjoy. :)
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post23 Oct 2011, 04:04

And I guess USN carrier aircraft have a lot more 'automatic carrier landing' features these days anyway (auto throttle for example). Will be good to see more information on how all of the above will work Seems to me as if the enhanced computer flight controls of the F-35C will be well-suited to this new wave of doing things.
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post26 Oct 2011, 19:48

Same ONR press release guff at beginning of this article with the quoted extra bit at end.

ONR Develops New Flight Control Software Oct 26, 2011 By Michael Fabey

http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/ ... re&next=10

"...More predictive
More precise carrier landings will help make the whole operation more predictive, he says. That in turn could help reduce the load on aircraft and perhaps even change certain aircraft requirements.

Reducing aircraft weight, he notes, could help reduce maintenance and life-cycle costs.

But the larger impact could be in next-generation aircraft. Depending on the effectiveness of the flight-control software and lessons learned from its use, aircraft designers could rethink flight controls and related equipment.

“We could start with a clean sheet of paper on aircraft design,” Deitchman says.

ONR plans to put the technology into an X-47B surrogate for “ride along” at-sea evaluations in fiscal 2012 and is looking to start flight tests in fiscal 2015."
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Offline
User avatar

spazsinbad

Elite 5K

Elite 5K

  • Posts: 23087
  • Joined: 05 May 2009, 21:31
  • Location: ɐıןɐɹʇsn∀¯\_(ツ)_/¯
  • Warnings: -2

Unread post14 Jul 2012, 09:51

Came across some more info about the 'Glideslope Descent-Rate Cuing to Aid Carrier Landings' above (with diagram). I wonder what happened to 'AVCARS' Augmented Visual Carrier Aircraft Recovery System?

http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backiss ... /jul81.pdf (5.1Mb) LSO SPECIAL EDITION
Attachments
AVCARS.gif
RAN FAA A4G Skyhawk 1970s: https://www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ AND https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/
Previous

Return to General F-35 Forum

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 12 guests