Helmet-mounted displays

Cockpit, radar, helmet-mounted display, and other avionics
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SpudmanWP

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Unread post13 Jun 2019, 17:30

I wonder how the new OLEDs will handle the issue?
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Unread post13 Jun 2019, 17:52

Lt. Col. Pete Lee, 62nd Fighter Squadron Commander at Luke AFB, tells about the helmet. 8)




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Unread post13 Jun 2019, 18:14

SpudmanWP wrote:I wonder how the new OLEDs will handle the issue?

Two things that do wonders for OLED:
1. OLED does not have a backlight, so no bleeding from those lights with OLED.
2. Since the display is transparent it doesn't have a mirror layer and therefor doesn't need a polarizing filter to enhance the contrast, due to this the OLED display should be more transparent than LCD.
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Unread post13 Jun 2019, 22:48

SpudmanWP wrote:I wonder how the new OLEDs will handle the issue?


Green glow was a residual consequence of how the current/previous technology produced light.

Maybe this can help describe what the visual effect is like —

Imagine turning up the instrument panel lights in your car at night so you can see them but creating reflections on the inside of the windows that obscure your view out the windshield. When you try to turn the inst panel lights down lower to reduce the reflections, you lose sight of the instruments. So it is w green glow; when they turn the vhud image to its dimmest setting there is still enough residual light on the inside of the visor to obscure the thing they have to see outside — the FLOLS (‘the ball’).

The challenge in the system in low light conditions is about how the sensor (the night camera) reacts when there is almost no ambient light to capture/amplify. NVGs would start to produce scintillation, particularly the older generation systems. An inability to discern the horizon was not unusual under certain ambient conditions. Apparently there are other different effects the camera produces and projects on the visor. ‘Striations’ is how they are described, but involve both what and how the camera ‘sees’ and how what it sees is processed, projected and reflected in the visor.
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Unread post14 Jun 2019, 00:40

An alternative way to demonstrate green glow is like this:

Attached to this post is an image of a night sky, with some stars on a pure black background:

mg0007-night-sky-with-twinkling-stars-animated-background_ekioupkse__F0000.png


If you look at that image (open it in a separate tab and press F11 to make it full screen; Esc to exit that mode) on a normal LCD computer monitor, in a room with the lights turned off, you'll see that even when your monitor is trying to display pure black, it's still very bright compared to the rest of your room. This all happens because the little liquid crystals that are meant to go opaque to block out the light, simply can't achieve full 100% opacity.

With the F-35's current LCD-projector tech, that very bright "black" is also being projected / reflected off the pilot's visor. What should just be some green lines and text on a fully transparent background is instead some green lines and text on a paler but not fully transparent green background.

This all happens because LCDs work by blocking light coming from light bulbs in the rear of your monitor. In older LCD displays there are fluorescent tubes in the edges of the monitor and they shine light through a plastic filter that spreads it out evenly towards the middle of the screen. If you've ever bought an "LED" TV or monitor, they're also LCDs, but they just use a grid of LED lights to create the same effect. Then, to control the colour, brightness, etc of the image on your monitor, every pixel on your screen has 3 little liquid crystal 'sub-pixels'; one is red, one is green, one is blue. To display a pure black pixel, those liquid crystals try to fully go opaque, but liquid crystals cannot achieve 100% opacity, so light gets through.

With OLEDs, there are no liquid crystals and there is no backlight (no fluorescent bulbs in the rear or grids of LED back lights). Instead, every pixel consists of microscopic red, green and blue LEDs and they just light up as much as needed. To display a pure black pixel, those LEDs just simply turn off completely and emit zero light.

So with the new OLED project tech in the F-35's HMDS, the symbology will still be lit just as well as before, but now the areas between text and lines will be vastly more transparent, because the only light that'll be shining onto the visor in those areas will be background luminance (lights shining inside his cockpit and reflecting off his face), which will be a tiny fraction of what the pilot experienced previously.

You can also see a similar result with your phone if you have an OLED / AMOLED display (Samsung Galaxy phones from recent years, the iPhone 10 family - any phone that features an "always-on display" with a clock still showing when the screen is off). If you open that same night sky image you should notice that if the pure black of the background blends seemlessly into the bezels / borders of your phone's display, because it's just (under the glass) black plastic bordering against black plastic.
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Unread post15 Jun 2019, 04:28

HMDS F-35 High Tech Helmet Pilot LtCol Lee 62FS CO 2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVmLZekvdS4

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Unread post16 Jun 2019, 02:35

F-35 Pilot's Flight Gear Explained & HMDS Luggage LtCol Lee '19 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PZcVRUiLd68

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Unread post04 Jul 2019, 04:07

Article 'bout USAF pilot training is useful however I found this combination of cockpits most faskinatin'. From top left to right bottom we have TALON, Thunderchief, T-X and F-35.
Rebuilding the Forge: Reshaping How the Air Force Trains Fighter Aviators
28 Jan 2019 Gen. Mike Holmes USAF

Photo Captions: "T-38A Talon cockpit (left) and an F-105 Thud cockpit (right). The prominence of navigation instruments is apparent in both, with the F-105 also adding a radar scope for the pilot to manage. (U.S. Air Force photos, T-38 credit Tech. Sgt. Javier Cruz) A T-X cockpit (left) and an F-35 Lightning II cockpit (right). Navigation and system monitoring are greatly simplified by automation, leaving the pilot free to operate either “virtual” sensors in the T-X or actual sensors in the F-35."

Source: https://warontherocks.com/2019/01/rebui ... -aviators/
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Unread post05 Aug 2019, 06:13

Page 53 of this thread there is an article: viewtopic.php?f=62&t=16223&p=372162&hilit=Facility+Pilot+Fit%2A#p372162 which is also replicated (what else) in this SLDinfo article. Then there is this earlier from 2015… I've searched for this same article here butno... VIDEO by Airman 1st Class Caroline Burnett 56th Fighter Wing Public Affairs 12 Jul 2019

SURVITEC brochure here: viewtopic.php?f=62&t=16223&p=225090&hilit=Survitec#p225090

SURVITEC JSF F-35 AGILE PILOT FLIGHT EQUIPMENT 15 June 2011
http://www.militarysystems-tech.com/fil ... ochure.pdf (1.1Mb)
Outfitting F-35 pilots requires perfection
20 Oct 2015 Staff Sgt. Staci Miller, 56th Fighter Wing Public Affairs

"LUKE AIR FORCE BASE, Ariz.- Anyone who has been fitted for a suit, a tux or even a set of golf clubs knows the difference a fitting can make. It's no different for warfighters. As technology gets more sophisticated it's essential that F-35 Lightning ll pilots be properly fitted for their gear. The pilot-fit facility opened on Luke Air Force Base June 10 and has since outfitted 20 pilots with advanced perfectly fitting gear. The PFF is run by Lockhead Martin and houses two highly technical engineering companies.

"On one side, we have Survitec Group, and they do everything below the neck," said Joe Garcia, Lockhead Martin PFF lead. "On the other side of the building there's Rockwell Collins who assembles and custom fits the F-35 helmets." Fitting and issuing the gear is a two-day process that includes testing the gear in a cockpit to ensure pilots can function safely and comfortably.

"The pilot comes in on day one, and we do a series of 13 measurements," said Keith Geltz, Survitec Group senior field engineer. "We take those sizes and determine a predicted fit." Survitec Group has a room full of various-sized garments. Once a pilot is given a predicted fit, he or she tries on the item to make sure it's an actual fit.

"The first thing they will put on is a cooling garment which works like antifreeze to keep the pilot cool," Geltz said. "If they're going to fly over water then they also need to wear a thermal protection layer." Every time they add a piece of gear the pilots are put through a series of movements to ensure they can maneuver.

"The first one is a 26-inch step to simulate getting into an F-35," Geltz said. Then they have to reach for the risers. After that, they sit down and check six, both right and left and then they attempt to put something in the g-suit pocket. They're all basic movements they would do in the cockpit, and we need to make sure they can do it."
On the other side of the house, Rockwell Collins is crafting F-35 Generation ll and lll helmet-mounted display systems.

This part of the process takes about four hours per helmet and involves spending two days with each pilot. On the first day, measurements are taken of the pilot's head, including a 3-D head scan and the use of a pupilometer to measure the distance between the pupils.

Once the measurements are made they begin assembling the helmet. This process includes custom-milling each helmet liner so the helmet sits comfortably on the pilot's head while maintaining stability under high-gravity maneuvers so the optics continue to match up to the individual's field of view. "They custom fit the pads in the helmet based on head size," said Donald Guess, Rockwell Collins customer support specialist.

Once the helmet is assembled, the pilot comes in for a final fitting on the second day. During this time the optics are aligned to the pilot's pupils and the display visor is custom contoured. This process must be done precisely so the pilot has a single focused image at infinity. "We take the pilot outside and have him focus on a point in the distance," Guess said. "This allows us to check everything and make sure the optics are aligned correctly." Once the pilot receives all his perfectly fitting gear from the PFF, it's his forever regardless of service or nationality.

"As long as they're flying an F-35, this equipment belongs to them," Geltz said. "Every service and every country wears the same exact gear. If a pilot flies an F-35, he has this equipment."

The gear the pilot receives isn't just a perfect fit for him or her; it's a perfect fit for the F-35. "This is the first time in history equipment like this has been designed for a particular aircraft," Geltz said. "Every aircraft we have now started with the aircraft being developed and then existing flight equipment is modified to make it work. This equipment is perfect for the F-35.""

:crazypilot: VIDEO: https://vimeo.com/349189248 :VIDEO 12 Jul 2019 :crazypilot:

Photo: “Christopher Culley, Rockwell Collins customer support specialist, performs measurements for an F-35 Lightning ll Generation lll helmet mounted display system at the pilot fit facility at Luke Air Force Base. Measurements are taken of the pilot’s head, including a 3-D head scan and the use of a pupilometer to measure the distance between the pupils. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Staci Miller)” https://media.defense.gov/2015/Oct/20/2 ... 94-032.jpg (3.5Mb)


Source: https://www.luke.af.mil/News/Article-Di ... erfection/
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Unread post16 Sep 2019, 17:48

Green Glow solved...? :roll: (I'm not sure.)
https://navalaviationnews.navylive.dodl ... ss-nimitz/
PDF ver. https://navalaviationnews.navylive.dodl ... er2019.pdf
Student Pilots Complete F-35C Carrier Quals Aboard USS Nimitz
New Technology in Helmet Eliminates Green Glow
By Commander, Joint Strike Fighter Wing Public Affairs New Technology in Helmet Eliminates Green Glow By Commander, Joint Strike Fighter Wing Public Affairs
“The improved Generation III helmet, with OLED technology, works as advertised and is on its way to being fully implemented into the F-35C community.”
The U.S. Navy F-35C program’s first Category 1 students completed night carrier qualifications aboard USS Nimitz (CVN 68) July 18, using the latest organic light-emitting diode (OLED) advancements for the F-35C helmet mounted display system (HMDS).

During previous carrier detachments, F-35C students without previous night carrier experience were not allowed to complete night carrier arrestments due to complications from the helmet’s “green glow” created from liquid crystal display (LCD) technology in the Generation III HMDS. This glow made it difficult to see the full resolution of the night vision video feed and hindered pilots’ ability to distinguish the carrier’s lighting environment during low-light combat configuration.

In an interview last August aboard USS Lincoln (CVN) during Operational Testing I, thencommanding officer of Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 125 Capt. Tommy Locke said, “There are some complexities with the green glow that we deal with now, but we only do it with experienced pilots. In that really dark environment, you can’t get the display down low enough where you can still process the image on the display and once you bring the display up high enough where it can, that information conflicts with the outside world.”

The new OLED technology reduces green glowinduced pilot disorientation by only illuminating the active pixels and providing a crisper picture. All VFA-125 and VFA-147 Category 1 pilots were able to successfully complete their initial night carrier qualifications aboard USS Nimitz using the OLEDupdated HMDS. Category 1 pilots are newly-winged aviators who have no previous night carrier experience and have never flown a fleet aircraft. They are the priority for receiving OLED technology and it will eventually be provided to all F-35C pilots.

“All of our Category 1 pilots successfully completed their night carrier qualifications during the squadron’s latest detachment to USS Nimitz,” said VFA-125 Commanding Officer, Cmdr. Adan Covarrubias. “The improved Generation III helmet, with OLED technology, works as advertised and is on its way to being fully implemented into the F-35C community.”

The OLED solution requires both hardware and software updates to the HMDS and the display management computer, helmet (DMCH) in the aircraft. These modifications are completed in-house by Navy personnel.

The advancement of these capabilities enhances a pilot’s situational awareness and reduces workload during low-light night carrier landings. When combined with the F-35C’s stealth technology, stateof-the-art avionics, advanced sensors and weapons capacity and range, the latest HMDS provides pilots with an advanced aircraft interface that offers unprecedented air superiority and advanced command and control functions through fused sensors. These state-of-the-art capabilities give pilots and combatant commanders unrivaled battlespace awareness and lethality.

VX-23 Tests New F-35 Helmet Mounted Display
By Lt. Cmdr. William “Carney” Bowen III
During F-35C Lightning II Developmental Test III in August 2016, three Navy developmental test pilots determined the “green glow” level associated with the liquid crystal display (LCD) Generation III Helmet Mounted Display System (HMDS) was deficient and resulted in unsuitably high workloads during low-light night carrier landings to the USS George Washington (CVN 73). In response to this deficiency, the F-35 Joint Program Office funded the rapid development of a prototype HMDS that uses organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology to eliminate the green glow associated with display projection. In October 2017, Air Test and Evaluation Squadron (VX) 23’s F-35 Carrier Suitability Department completed an evaluation of the prototype OLED HMDS culminating with two “Salty Dog” pilots executing low-light night carrier landings to USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70). Both pilots reported favorable results with the prototype OLED HMDS—noting a total absence of green glow and a pronounced reduction in overall workload during the low-light night carrier-landing task as compared to legacy aircraft. Consequently, the OLED HMDS became a Program of Record in 2018. In March 2019, the same two VX-23 pilots evaluated the production representative version of the OLED HMDS. In addition to verifying the production representative, OLED HMDS performance met or exceeded that seen with the prototype during low-light night flight test. At the same time, a number of off-nominal catapults and arrestment test points were executed at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, TC-7 and MK-7 test sites to verify the new OLED HMDS could survive the carrier environment. Following these successful test events, Strike Fighter Squadron (VFA) 125 and VFA-147 took Category 1 students aboard USS Nimitz, where they successfully completed their night carrier qualifications using the OLED-updated HMDS. Lt. Cmdr. William “Carney” Bowen III is an F-35C test pilot with Air Test and Evaluation Squadron (VX) 23.
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Unread post16 Sep 2019, 18:14

That sounds like a pretty definitive- green glow solved.
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Unread post16 Sep 2019, 21:04

Thanks for that 'doge' - haven't read it all yet but very pleased that VX-23 NEWs is back in play. F-35C students with not a lot of experience being able to NIGHT QUALIFY with the new OLED HMDS III technology is a big deal & it is ideal it seems.

This is old news on this thread replicated here to illustrate what was required for NIGHT QUALS before OLED TECH etc.
viewtopic.php?f=62&t=16223&p=421653&hilit=Larter#p421653
12 Jun 2019 "Issues with low-light operations have pushed the Navy to only allow experienced pilots to fly the F-35 in conditions that elicit the green glow issue. For now, if the conditions for green glow obstruction are in play, only pilots with 50 or more night carrier landings can fly the plane.

Last year, the commander of the Navy’s strike fighter squadron told reporters that the green glow issue forced a number of actions from the pilots in order to make sure they could land safely, and for the time being that was best left to more experienced fliers.

"There are some complexities with the green glow that we deal with right now, but we only do it with experienced pilots,” said Cmdr. Tommy Locke, according to Military.com. “In that really dark environment, you can’t get the display down low enough where you can still process the image on the display, and once you bring the display up high enough where you can, that information — it conflicts with the outside world.”

Locke also said OLED technology was going to make a big difference. “It reduces the green glow; there’s a much crisper picture that will allow us to avoid the disorientation with the green glow,” he said." https://www.defensenews.com/smr/hidden- ... -at-night/

Another reference to the 'experienced 50+ carrier landings F-35C restriction': viewtopic.php?f=62&t=16223&p=400742&hilit=Matthew#p400742 from: https://www.military.com/defensetech/20 ... dings.html
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