EMALS & JPALS for the JSF

Discuss the F-35 Lightning II
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spazsinbad

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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 07:47

Yep 'pedantic' I am. DOT&E reports are 'old' news already discussed here but good to be reminded of old news I guess.
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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 08:03

Harrier XW175 Research Aircraft and the VAAC Programme
Dec 2011 BAHG [Bedford Aeronautical Heritage Group] Newsletter Issue 2, Dec 2011

XW175, a second development batch T2 two-seat aircraft, first flew in 1969 and was delivered to RAE Bedford in February 1975. It is a unique aircraft in that it spent most of its operating life in support of VSTOL research. In the early 1970’s RAE Bedford was tasked by MoD with a work package to enable Sea Harriers to recover to a vertical landing on a ship at night in poor visibility. XW175 was allocated as the trials aircraft and thus began its illustrious 38 year research career at RAE Bedford and then at QinetiQ Boscombe Down. During 1977/78 two sea trials were completed with HMS Hermes. The research programmes included recovery using MADGE guidance, VSTOL Head Up Display symbology, ski-jump launch, auto-stabiliser and autopilot development and FLIR demonstrations.

In the early 1980’s, studies into advanced VSTOL aircraft concepts suggested that control at low speed and hover could be more complex than with the Harrier. The need for research into novel control methods led to XW175 being adapted for one pilot to have fly-by-wire control, when it became the Vectored thrust Aircraft Advanced Control (VAAC) Harrier, a unique UK VSTOL research vehicle.

Over the period 1986-2004, several 2-inceptor control concepts were progressively developed, first with simulation and then, from 1990, with extensive flight trials in the aircraft, including the first ever deck landing with unified control (HMS Illustrious, Sept 1998). In 2002 this Bedford ‘Unified’ control concept, having been shown to demand minimal pilot workload while maximising safety, was selected for the STOVL variant of the Joint Strike Fighter (Lockheed Martin F-35B). Several ship trials with HMS Illustrious and HMS Invincible were completed up to 2008 to further support JSF and to demonstrate the capability to UK and US pilots. These trials included automatic recovery and automatic vertical landing to a ship at sea, some 30 years after the original HMS Hermes trials with XW175 in 1977. Having conducted its last research sortie on 18 Nov 2008, with QinetiQ at Boscombe Down, XW175’s final resting place is now to be resolved. BAHG has expressed strong interest in bringing the aircraft back to Bedford. Major museums, such as the RAF Museum, are also making bids.”

Source: http://www.bahg.org.uk/documents/BAHG%2 ... er%202.pdf (330Kb)
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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 08:19

13 page PDF cited on previous page attached below.
Performance of Integrity Monitoring Techniques for Shipboard Relative GPS Landing Systems 13-16 Sep 2005

No longer at: http://www.beidoudb.com:88/document/upl ... 5562a9.pdf
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Integrity GPS Monitoring AUTO LAND efd72499-87a4-4f71-874f-36a5b95562a9.pdf
(840.88 KiB) Downloaded 30 times
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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 15:01

Remarkable stuff...and it was 15 years ago. :salute:

Notably, touchdown dispersion for manual landings was mostly longitudinal while the auto landings deviated laterally; pretty consistent w/ what I would expect for the manual landings given typical visual references. Though to my knowledge they don’t track such things, I would bet that the CEP about the designated landing spot for current F-35B ops (all manual, of course) is very similar or better than what the VAAC Harrier achieved in auto mode. Such is the progress of technology.
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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 19:51

Just for perspective, here's the aircraft that flew the first ILS in 1938 (Boeing 247)....not coupled up, but manually....in a snowstorm. :shock:

And the aircraft that flew the first LAAS tests (unencrypted JPALS equivalent without differential GPS) in the early 90s, 25 years ago, also manually, also Boeing.

Of course neither of these could takeoff or land vertically on a boat, in fact taking off or landing horizontally on a runway in bad wx was generally somewhat of a challenge. :D
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b727.jpg
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Unread post08 Feb 2020, 23:00

From the attached PDF source about VAAC Harrier AUTO-LAND Testing...
"...The performance of the entire Autoland system can be estimated using the touchdown dispersion. The postprocessed location of the aircraft reference point with respect to the ship touchdown point can be calculated and is shown in Figure 9. The solid blue line shows the limit of the desired system touchdown position – 3ft laterally and 5ft longitudinally. The dashed blue line shows the limit of acceptable system touchdown position – 6ft laterally and 10ft longitudinally. Each of the coloured marks shows a recorded touchdown location. These are distinguished in terms of whether the autopilot was engaged for the approach. Thus ‘Auto’ approaches have the aircraft under fully automatic control, and ‘Manual’ approaches have the evaluation pilot following HUD directors generated from the Autoland system. It can be seen that all the ‘Auto’ approaches ended in a landing within the acceptable limits and all but three ended in a landing within the desired limits...." Performance of Integrity Monitoring Techniques for Shipboard Relative GPS Landing Systems 2005
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Unread post09 Feb 2020, 01:52

Carrier Ford completes aircraft compatibility testing
05 Feb 2020 Michael Fabey

"Aircraft carrier USS Gerald R Ford (CVN 78) finished Aircraft Compatibility Testing (ACT), the US Navy (USN) confirmed on 5 February. Ford completed ACT on 31 January after launching and recovering 211 aircraft at sea, testing five different airframes of the Ford airwing with the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) and Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG) - two Aircraft Launch and Recovery Equipment (ALRE) systems unique to Ford-class carriers.

Ford ACT included the following aircraft: T-45 Goshawk; E/A-18G Growler; E-2D Advanced Hawkeye; C-2A Greyhound; and F/A-18F Super Hornets.

Aircraft were launched and recovered in different environmental conditions and sea states, and with varying aircraft weights - from heavy aircraft in light wind conditions to light aircraft in heavy wind conditions. The ACT is the second and final round of testing on Ford at this stage, which validated the ship's capability to launch and to recover aircraft with ordnance loadout and fuel states similar to those needed for deployment requirements and operating tempos."

Source: https://www.janes.com/article/94136/car ... ty-testing
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Unread post10 Feb 2020, 07:34

Talking about F-35B AUTO LAND (of all things) this report was poohpoohed at the time and perhaps rightly so but FUD!
Just Push ‘Auto-Land’
April 2011 John A. Tirpak

“A Lockheed Martin F-35B short takeoff & vertical landing test aircraft last week achieved an impressive milestone, according to Warren Boley, Pratt & Whitney military engines president. “For the first time,” Boley said in an interview, “a pilot pushed a button & the [air]plane landed autonomously.” [I guess there was no AUTO APPROACH involved eh]

Boley joked that the pilot could fold his hands behind his head or ‘read the paper’ while the airplane safely settled down to a vertical landing from hover. The flight was the 74th vertical landing of the F-35 test program, & the fact that the Marine Corps was willing to allow the test indicated high confidence in the airplane & its Pratt-supplied F135 engine, Boley told the Daily Report April 8.”

Source: http://www.airforce-magazine.com/DRArch ... -Land.aspx
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Unread post12 Feb 2020, 05:18

EMALS, AAG Systems OK’d for All Carrier Aircraft [Yeah But NO but Yeah BUT NO F-35Cs m'lud]
11 Feb 2020 Seapower Staff

"SAN DIEGO — General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems (GA-EMS) announced that the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) and Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG) have been cleared for shipboard launch and recovery of all currently deployed naval aircraft types aboard USS Gerald R. Ford (CVN 78).

The Navy issued Aircraft Launch Bulletins (ALB) and Aircraft Recovery Bulletins (ARB) that identify the weights and engaging speeds authorized for shipboard aircraft launch and recovery, and signal EMALS and AAG are operationally safe for use aboard the Ford. On Jan. 31, the carrier completed at-sea aircraft compatibility testing (ACT) utilizing a range of aircraft, including F/A-18E/F, E-2D, C-2A, EA-18G, and T-45C, to prove EMALS and AAG can accommodate the air wing aircraft.

“EMALS and AAG can launch and recover the current air wing and any future aircraft, to provide greater flexibility than the legacy systems aboard Nimitz-class carriers,” said Scott Forney, president of GA-EMS. “The Navy is expecting flight-deck certification to take place in the coming months and will conduct a steady stream of cats and traps this year — we’re talking in the thousands — to move the ship closer to full mission capability and capacity.”..."

Source: https://seapowermagazine.org/emals-aag- ... -aircraft/
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