EMALS & JPALS for the JSF

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spazsinbad

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Unread post06 Dec 2016, 09:22

LM F-35 GM Weekly Update
17 Nov 2016 Jeff Babione

"On board the USS America (LHA-6), the team continues to expand the F-35B envelope for the fleet to utilize during deployments. The Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) is an important feature the team successfully tested during this at-sea period. The JPALS system works on both the F-35B and the F-35C, enabling the jet to synchronize speeds with the ship, in the F-35B’s case, an amphibious assault ship.

In October 2015, the team first tested this same technology to land aboard the USS Eisenhower (CVN 69) with the F-35C model. The difference is the F-35B matches the speed and trajectory of the ship exactly to not only land on board, but to hover in parallel position, allowing the pilot to transition the F-35B over the deck and then execute a vertical landing. This innovative technology not only makes it easier for pilots to accomplish a vertical landing onboard a ship moving at speeds of up to 30 knots, but also makes pilot training much easier for young fleet pilots to safely land...."

Source: https://a855196877272cb14560-2a4fa819a6 ... _17_16.pdf (0.7Mb)
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Unread post11 Dec 2016, 21:36

JPALS to Guide F-35, MQ-25 To Shipboard Landings
Dec 2016 SEAPOWER Magazine

"BACKGROUND
The Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS) is designed by Raytheon to guide aircraft to precision landings on an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship in any environment. The program, initially joint, now is Navy-sponsored.

SCOPE
The JPALS was envisioned for back-fit into existing carrier aircraft, but now is focused on the F-35B/C Lightning II joint strike fighter and MQ-25A Stingray unmanned carrier aerial refueling system. The JPALS is expected to equip all production versions of the aircraft as well as other future carrier aircraft.

TIMELINE
The Navy in September awarded Raytheon $255 million for the development and production readiness of JPALS. Rockwell Collins received a $67 million, six-year contract in October from Raytheon to complete the development of JPALS navigation and communication subsystems. JPALS is scheduled to achieve early operational capability in 2018. A decision
for low-rate initial production is expected in 2019. Initial operational capability is scheduled for mid-2020....

...JPALS uses differential GPS [Global Positioning System] signals to guide an aircraft to the deck of a ship with precision in any kind of weather and in darkness. With data links between the aircraft, ship and satellite continuously transmitting faster than a second, the ship’s positions are recalculated continuously as the aircraft approaches. The aircraft is not reliant on a ship’s radars and beacons.

Under the concept, a signal is broadcast to the aircraft from the ship when the aircraft is 200 nautical miles away. The aircraft logs into the JPALS system at the 60-nautical-mile mark and starts two-way communication with the ship that is accounting for pitch, roll and heave.

At the 10-nautical mile mark, the data transmission speed becomes multiple updates per second, with more data as well. The data link has anti-jam and anti-spoofing capabilities built into it to make it secure.

The original concept was for JPALS to take the aircraft down to 200 feet in altitude before the pilot resumed control. Under the current program, Raytheon will develop the capability for the aircraft — piloted or unmanned — to be guided all the way to the deck.

JPALS has been tested in a Navy F/A-18 Hornet strike fighter, including taking the aircraft to carrier landings. The F/A-18 made 38 landings on a carrier with JPALS. Raytheon has tested JPALS for 40,000 hours over the development program so far.

The goal is that the pilots are going to have a huge increase in confidence knowing that they’re going to return from a mission regardless of conditions that they’re coming back into. This is a mature solution set that we’re putting out there."

Source: http://www.seapower-digital.com/seapowe ... pg=48#pg48
A4G Skyhawk: www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ & www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/videos?view_as=subscriber
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Unread post12 Dec 2016, 02:42

spazsinbad wrote:[....
.. (JPALS) is designed by Raytheon to [b]guide aircraft to precision landings on an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship in any environment..

..The JPALS was envisioned for back-fit into existing carrier aircraft, but now is focused on the F-35B/C Lightning II joint strike fighter and MQ-25A Stingray unmanned carrier aerial refueling system. The JPALS is expected to equip all production versions of the aircraft as well as other future carrier aircraft...]


"Sea-Based JPALS is an all-weather, all-mission GPS-based landing system that provides landing guidance for carrier-based fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, and features anti-jam protection for operating in electronic warfare (EW) environments."

..as a precision differential GPS based system, one might anticipate those JPAL aircraft using a JPAL feature to assist automating inflight refueling (unloading a tired/ exhausted pilot).....IMHO... (add a little extra JPAL stuff in the tanker)....
:)
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Unread post12 Dec 2016, 02:52

Two methods were used by X-47B - as described.... viewtopic.php?f=55&t=20468&p=300952&hilit=refuel#p300952
X-47B Passes Unmanned Refueling Test
Summer 2015 [or 29 Jul 2015] Jeff Newman [NAN] Naval Aviation News

"...The chief difference between a manned and unmanned refueling, McLean said, comes in accounting for the constant bobbing motion of the drogue—which resembles a badminton shuttlecock—as it trails behind the tanker.

Whereas human pilots can instinctively anticipate the drogue’s movement, the X-47B has cameras that track the basket and perform calculations to predict where it will be at the moment of connection.

“The drogue bounces around in space, so a pilot can make tiny little corrections in real time, whereas the X-47B is doing a whole bunch of computations and essentially sets up a time and space where it thinks the basket is going, and if the basket is bouncing up and down, that can be difficult,” McLean said.

The plane uses GPS to approach the tanker until it is about 20 feet from the drogue, at which point the optical system takes over, McLean said.

Like any aircraft, the X-47B also produces a thin, forward pulse of air known as a “bow wave,” which can move the basket just as the probe is approaching, similar to a speeding car pushing falling snowflakes over its hood.

“That’s why it’s such a huge achievement, because of all those unknowns, and when you’re talking about inches of precision required, any bump the tanker hits only magnifies movement for the basket, like the whip of a tail,” McLean said.

Another challenge is that, with its probe out on the right wing, the X-47B has to fly with a focus on keeping that part of the plane stable while refueling. While landing on a carrier, the X-47B can keep its center mass steady as in normal flight.

The first day of testing was spent calibrating how the drogue would react to the X-47B’s bow wave. The team programmed the aircraft to approach the basket from a certain position, but found that the bow wave moved the basket up and to the right far enough that the X-47B could not chase it. So they offset the approach up and to the right by one foot, and achieved a successful plug on their last attempt of day one.

“The next day we went back and we nailed it because we’d figured out where the plane should be positioned to make the basket predictable and it was pretty much automatic,” McLean said. Before the optical system takes over for the fine movements of the basket, the plane is flying by GPS at a relative position to the tanker, so we had to figure out how high up and down the plane should start that approach to reduce the bow wave’s effect.”

McLean contrasted the refueling of an X-47B with that of an F/A-18, which has its probe far back enough on the nose that pilots are able to easily anticipate the plane pushing the basket up. “It’s a very predictable movement. We basically know where the basket is going to move,” he added.

Turbulence remains mid-air refueling challenge

McLean said the team had three objectives during testing: three successful plugs, to stay connected for five minutes, and ultimately transfer 3,000 pounds of fuel. It accomplished the first two goals during the second day, and wrapped up the third in short order on day three.

“It didn’t last very long,” McLean said of the third day of testing. “Pretty straightforward. It was quick because it was successful right away.” “Pretty straightforward” only applies when the refueling is conducted amid clear skies and the That’s the challenge for manned refueling too, is the motion of the basket.basket is affected by minimal turbulence.

“It is predictable, but the challenging variable is turbulence,” McLean said. “If there’s turbulence, then the unmanned refueling becomes much, much harder. I think that is something that with more testing they could improve the system, but I think it’s always going to be a challenge. ”..."

Source: http://navalaviationnews.navylive.dodli ... ling-test/
A4G Skyhawk: www.faaaa.asn.au/spazsinbad-a4g/ & www.youtube.com/channel/UCwqC_s6gcCVvG7NOge3qfAQ/videos?view_as=subscriber
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Unread post16 Dec 2016, 09:31

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Unread post16 Dec 2016, 13:19

Some guys at the University of Sydney pulled this off in principle with hobby / research UAVs about a month prior to Northrop; their video shows a process that would be very similar to that which the X-47B followed.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQrVQ-wpUfM
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Unread post22 Dec 2016, 02:28

Not looking good. A peek behind the paywall will be appreciated.

http://aviationweek.com/awindefense/us- ... ncellation
"When a fifth-generation fighter meets a fourth-generation fighter—the [latter] dies,”
CSAF Gen. Mark Welsh
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Unread post24 Dec 2016, 10:16

Over on another thread this JPALS 'history' PDF was attached by 'Marauder2048' viewtopic.php?f=22&t=52467&p=358719&hilit=JPALS#p358719 - so it is referenced here with download link. It was good to see clear reference to which platforms will host JPALS now:

download/file.php?id=23983 (PDF 1.1Mb)
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JPALS Restructure Which Platforms Will Have JPALS.gif
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Unread post24 Dec 2016, 20:00

spazsinbad wrote:Over on another thread this JPALS 'history' PDF was attached by 'Marauder2048' viewtopic.php?f=22&t=52467&p=358719&hilit=JPALS#p358719 - so it is referenced here with download link. It was good to see clear reference to which platforms will host JPALS now:

download/file.php?id=23983 (PDF 1.1Mb)

I just love how RAND turns everything into complicated BS to prove whatever guesses they come up with. How many Nunn-McCurdy breaches occur because of expanded paperwork to justify the cost overruns, causing even larger cost overruns?

What doesn't seem clear in the PDF is that most Naval Air Stations use Precision Approach Radar, and ILS isn't used on tactical Navy jets. From a technical point of view, the F/A-18 already supports modular "landing systems", and has since the F/A-18 first went into service. One dramatic example was when an F/A-18E almost had to ditch in the St. Louis river because of issues with PAR and seeing the runway at decision altitude. The jet landed on fumes. These kind of incidents are an ongoing issue. I can't imagine NAVAIR suddenly requiring ILS on fleet jets, because of JPALS installation on military airfields.


Installing JPALS at NAS would be far cheaper than maintaining PAR for the fleet jets, once they all have JPALS capability. The JPALS program office should just tell the FAA to pull their heads out of their sixes, and accept civilian degraded JPALS (aka LAAS) without the fuss. It isn't like the FAA requires jets to land within a 40x20 spot on an carrier, good weather or bad.

Then again, maybe somebody remind tell the FAA that major mishaps (eg. ramp strike/pilot ejects) during carrier landings are very rare. A perfectly good civilian jet coming in low, and crashing just short of the runway, is a more frequent occurrence. Asiana 214, and an Air Canada E170 did something similar, among others.
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Unread post25 Jan 2017, 02:18

It looks like the Navy's optimism was justified and the AAG will live on in future Ford-class CVNs.

http://www.stripes.com/news/us/navy-sta ... s-1.450430
"When a fifth-generation fighter meets a fourth-generation fighter—the [latter] dies,”
CSAF Gen. Mark Welsh
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Unread post25 Jan 2017, 02:26

Thanks 'popcorn' there are a few stories around saying the same thing ACCURATELY. AP needs to employ grown ups to rewrite press releases. For gorsake - from AP Stars & Stripes above:
"...Benefits of the new landing gear include more reliability and less maintenance.

The landing gear problems have helped delay delivery of the USS Gerald R. Ford, the first of the Navy's new class of aircraft carriers...."


REAL DEAL from the PROs: http://www.navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?fu ... ry&id=6465
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Unread post23 Mar 2017, 15:15

"Magic Carpet" has been renamed "PLM" and being deployed ahead of schedule:

"F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and EA-18G Growler pilots across the fleet are conducting pre-deployment workups using the Navy’s revolutionary aircraft carrier landing software—Magic Carpet—with great success and several years ahead of schedule..."

"Last fall, air wings began training with Magic Carpet—the Maritime Augmented Guidance with Integrated Controls for Carrier Approach and Recovery Precision Enabling Technologies—and Landing Signal Officers (LSOs) are witnessing improved performance at a much lower pilot workload.

Renamed Precision Landing Modes (PLM) by aircrew, it provides improved safety, efficiency and success rates in recovering fixed-wing aircraft on board aircraft carriers while easing pilot workload, improves overall boarding rates, creates the potential to reduce tanker requirements and improves Naval Aviation’s effectiveness...."

"“PLM is probably the biggest advancement to carrier aviation since the IFLOLS was installed,” Moreno said. Deployed on all carriers by 2004, IFLOLS—the improved Fresnel lens optical landing system—is a stack of 12 light cells, which produce a single ball-shaped image used by carrier pilots to determine the glideslope as they approach the carrier to land."

http://navalaviationnews.navylive.dodli ... ic-carpet/
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Unread post23 Mar 2017, 19:05

Oh 'maus92' you really should come here more often to read the navy stuff, at least search before posting if you bin away.

Saving grace of the online same article as in the PDF attached here is the photo of the MAGII trainer, so go here:

viewtopic.php?f=57&t=15767&p=364575&hilit=Precision+Landing+Modes#p364575
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Unread post23 Mar 2017, 23:14

spazsinbad wrote:Oh 'maus92' you really should come here more often to read the navy stuff, at least search before posting if you bin away.

Saving grace of the online same article as in the PDF attached here is the photo of the MAGII trainer, so go here:

viewtopic.php?f=57&t=15767&p=364575&hilit=Precision+Landing+Modes#p364575


I searched "Magic Carpet" and posted in the very first forum topic on the list - investing any more effort isn't worth the time. Anyway, not sure why a workup with F/A-18E/Fs on the Bush and other CVNs relates to the topic you posted under ("F-35C Lands at Lakehurst For Testing.")
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Unread post24 Mar 2017, 07:50

Thanks for confirmation of laziness. That thread cited has a long history thread of info about the MAGII Soup on the Carpet. But of course if one never reads anything here that would be news to them. So keep reading only the first post found - a headline reader own goal I reckon. Where this thread title is 'EMALS & JPALS for the JSF' I do not see HORNET.
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