EMALS & JPALS for the JSF

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Unread post16 Jan 2015, 05:08

Whilst Awaiting JPALS the other system is being upgraded. I did not know some of the details herein:
Sierra Nevada to provide upgrade kits for carrier precision-approach landing systems
Jan 2015 John Keller MILITARY & AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS

"JOINT BASE MCGUIRE-DIX-LAKEHURST, N.J.—U.S. Navy carrier aviation experts needed upgrade kits to improve the AN/SPN-46 automatic carrier landing system. They found their solution from Sierra Nevada Corp. in Sparks, Nev.

Officials of the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division, Lakehurst, at Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, N.J., announced an $8.2 million contract to Sierra Nevada to provide as many as 16 Block III receiver upgrade kits for the AN/SPN-46.

The Block III receivers are critical components on the AN/SPN-46 shipboard-based precision approach and landing system. The AN/SPN-46 precision approach landing systems from Textron Inc. in Providence, R.I., are installed on all U.S. Navy aircraft carriers.

The AN/SPN-46 employs low-probability-of-intercept technology to decrease the probability of passive detection by hostile forces. The AN/SPN- 46 employs an X-band coherent transmitter and receiver using monopulse tracking and Doppler processing on received signals for clutter rejection and rain attenuation at an operating range of eight nautical miles.

The AN/SPN-46 precision approach landing system (PALS) includes the Textron SPN 46 (V)1 and (V)2 automatic landing systems for aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships. The system provides final approach and landing guidance for aircraft during day/night operations and adverse weather conditions.

The precision approach landing system can control as many as two aircraft simultaneously in a leapfrog pattern; each approaching aircraft being assisted by the system lands, another can be acquired.

The AN/SPN-46 radar provides a Mode 1 approach. When engaged a PALS approach provides a hands-off landing for the pilot. Pilots reportedly do not use it often, preferring not to hand off much of the aircraft’s controls to a computer but it is important for controller to be able to take control when all other systems fail...."

Source: MILITARY & AEROSPACE ELECTRONICS JANUARY 2015
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Unread post27 Jan 2015, 19:04

The USS Gerald R. Ford and the Landing and Take-Off Launch System
26 Jan 2015 SLDinfo

"...EMALS
According to Hicks [Mr. Hicks, Construction Superintendent, CVN 78]...

...A great advantage of EMALS is the acceleration curve is very smooth.

It ramps up very smooth as opposed to a steam cat that spikes up on the front end.

The control that you have around that acceleration is virtually infinite.

And if you get half way down the cat and the system senses that you’re not getting there, it will increase power as necessary to reach end speed.

The system itself is intelligent enough to increase power as you go and increase the acceleration rate so that at the end you’re actually going 160 knots per hour or whatever you want to be at the end....

...AAG...
...“Advanced arresting gear is actually three main components starting with an electric motor, a cable drum and a water twister.

The real technological breakthrough here is this water twister.

The water twister is essentially a dead headed pump, a paddle wheel for lack of a better term. That’s the brawn of the system.

It’ll take up most of the energy.

It’ll actually pull in probably 70% or so of the energy.The cable drum itself but nothing more than a fishing reel. It just winds up the cable.

And the electric motor is essentially the brains of the system.

So if you were to catch a very light aircraft the water twister would want to rip the tail hook off. The electric motor, when light aircraft come in, will adjust the system to the appropriate measures to land the aircraft.

It’ll actually make the deceleration curve very similar to EMALs acceleration curve, and it’ll make that very smooth as well as opposed to a hydraulic ram.”

AAG Data Sheet: http://www.sldinfo.com/wp-content/uploa ... et_aag.pdf (0.5Mb)

Source: http://www.sldinfo.com/the-uss-gerald-r ... ch-system/
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Unread post23 Mar 2015, 19:47

State of the Carrier Program [CVNs Nimitz & Ford Class] PPTX attached as PDF
17 March 2015 RADM Tom Moore, Program Executive Officer Aircraft Carriers

"...Accomplishments...
--... - Catapult installation on track (2 of 4 complete)
--... - Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG)
----... - Major components received
----... - Installation behind schedule

--...- Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS)
----... - Shipboard testing started on schedule, Aug 2014
----... - 8 of 12 motor generators energized
----... - Catapult testing started 16 Dec 2014, testing on schedule...

...Upcoming Key Events
--... - Apr 2015: EMALS shuttle movement (no load testing) begins
--... - Jun 2015: EMALS deadload Testing begins..."

Source: https://www.scribd.com/document_downloa ... nsion=pptx (7.7Mb)
Attachments
EMALS AAG FORD CVN State of Play 17 Mar 2015.gif
FORD CVN State of Play 17 Mar 2015 259651295-Credit-Suisse-Brief-PAO-Chop-R1-2pptx.pdf
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 04:21

OMG! IS this an EARLY April Fool Story? Talk about Motley...
Navy Jets With Extra Fuel Can’t Be Launched Off New U.S. Carrier
27 Mar 2015 Tony Capaccio BlumBug

"...(Bloomberg) — The U.S. Navy’s top warplanes can’t be launched off its newest aircraft carrier if they’re carrying fuel tanks needed to extend their flight range because the ship’s high-tech catapults cause too much wear.

Military weapons testers view this as a deficiency that would “preclude the Navy from conducting normal operations” on the USS Gerald R. Ford until it’s corrected, said Air Force Major Eric Badger, spokesman for the Pentagon’s testing office, in an e-mail....

...The 480-gallon tanks for extended flights are carried under the wings of two models of the F/A-18, the Super Hornet fighter and the Growler jamming aircraft. The carrier’s electromagnetic launch system, made by General Atomics, puts more stress on the tanks than older steam-powered catapults, and that would cause premature damage to the planes, according to the test office and Navy documents.... :mrgreen: [GO YE MIGHTY F-35C WOT DOAN NEED DEM FUEL FANKS!] :mrgreen:

...A Sept. 5 report by the Naval Air Systems Command found that “the overstress condition will eliminate the employment of external fuel tanks” that are “an essential element” of combat loads for many Super Hornets and most Growler jammer jets.

The wing tanks and the pylons they hang from are designed to withstand twisting and yanking when an aircraft is launched, but the stresses add up over time. Given the test results, the warplanes wouldn’t be able to launch with fuel tanks, Badger said....

...Software Fix
The Navy says it will install corrective software on the launch system intended to reduce acceleration forces and will test it on board the Ford after delivery next March. The software change is intended to adjust the power exerted during launches to reduce stress on the wing tanks.

Commander Thurraya Kent, a Navy spokeswoman, said the catapult flaw didn’t cause any launches to fail during on-ground tests at the Navy’s Lakehurst, New Jersey, facility.

Navy aircraft specialists “are aware of this issue and in close coordination with structural and systems engineers” who are assessing launch system “and/or aircraft-based alternatives to address the situation,” she said.

The Navy has earmarked funds to develop corrections once a solution is determined, she said...."

Source: http://hrana.org/news/2015/03/navy-jets ... s-carrier/
&/OR/wahteva: http://www.bloomberg.com/politics/artic ... -s-carrier
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 04:29

Einstein got it backward: one cannot prevent a war without preparing for it.

Uncertainty: Learn it, love it, live it.
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 06:23

OOOPs and thanks I do not usually look at the other forums here - my bad - still won't look at other forums much but... :mrgreen:

And I like this bit from NAVY TIMES (the other artickle):
New catapults need fix to launch jets with fuel pods [PODS? Whats up with that? PODS?]
27 Mar 2015 Lance M. Bacon

"..."The Navy understands the issue, views it as low technical risk, and has a funded plan in place to fix it," he said. "The resolution of this issue is straight-forward because the Navy will leverage this inherent capability of the system to tune the catapult forces for these wing tank configurations. There is no impact to ongoing shipboard installation or shipboard testing and this will not delay any CVN 78 milestones."...

...The holdback release dynamics, which are the core of the problem, were not evident during dead load launches and were within the realm of normal discovery, officials said. The issue did not result in any failed launches and was not the result of any material, quality or manufacturing flaw within the system.

The solution requires "further tuning of the EMALS control algorithm," officials said in reporting the initial findings. Software updates will be followed by dead load launches, comparative steam catapult launches and aircraft launches at Lakehurst in fiscal 2016. The Ford will get software updates after its scheduled March 2016 delivery, but prior to operational launch and recovery of aircraft, which is set for 2017. No additional hardware or changes to equipment already installed will be required. Similarly, aircraft will not require modification ...."

Source: http://www.navytimes.com/story/military ... /70508062/
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 11:46

Carrier Schedule Depends On Fastener Fix [That's all she wrote]
27 Mar 2015 Michael Fabey; Aviation Week & Space Technology

"Whether the U.S. Navy keeps to the new schedule and cost estimates for the CVN 78 Gerald R. Ford aircraft carrier may come down to just how well a set of redesigned fasteners for the ship’s Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG) survives a new round of extremely important tests. Fasteners may seem to be a very a small thing for a $12.9 billion ship that carries its own airfield, but this particular piece of equipment anchors a system that ensures that most of the aircraft taking off from the..."

Source: http://aviationweek.com/defense/carrier ... stener-fix
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 13:47

spazsinbad wrote:.., views it as low technical risk, ... The issue did not result in any failed launches ..


yawn!..isn't this thing supposed to be "dial-a-launch"? :doh: new great technology and needs a little tuning, must be getting close to doing the "real thing" :)
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Unread post28 Mar 2015, 13:59

spazsinbad wrote:[quote...Advanced Arresting Gear (AAG) survives a new round of extremely important tests...


..this one "AAG", is a disappointment..I had hoped it would be "dial-a-land". :( .... they are still "fooling around" with a water twister, instead of a load generator (energy recovery) to recharge the emals power supplies...tech weenies, can't live with them and can't live without them :bang:
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Unread post04 Apr 2015, 18:14

US says would back India in buying electromagnetic launching system for aircraft carriers
04 Apr 2015 REUTERS

"WASHINGTON: The US government would support selling General Atomics' electromagnetic launching system for aircraft carriers, and other key technologies, to India, the Pentagon's chief weapons buyer told Reuters on Friday.

Defense Undersecretary Frank Kendall, who heads a joint US-India defense trade and technology effort, said he was optimistic about the two countries' efforts to cooperate on a planned aircraft carrier for India.

I'm optimistic about cooperating with them on that," Kendall told Reuters in an interview, when asked about the possibility of India acquiring the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) built by privately held General Atomics, which is based in San Diego, California.

"They're going to have to make their own decision about what technology they want, but I don't see any fundamental obstacles to them acquiring some of our carrier technologies, if they want them," he said.

India wants to use state-of-the-art US technology to boost the range and potency of a planned aircraft carrier, in a move that would deepen cooperation between both countries and counter China's military influence in the region.

General Atomics, which has also proposed selling the system to Brazil, says selling the system to foreign countries could help lower the cost of installing the system on the new Gerald R. Ford class of US Navy aircraft carriers being built by Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc.

The new system helps jets launch off a flat deck at a faster rate and with less fatigue to the aircraft...."

Source: http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/new ... 802617.cms
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Unread post09 Apr 2015, 07:41

Thanks to 'bring_it_on' we have the JPALS excerpt below as described with relevant 2 pages from the main PDF.
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Systems Engineering FY 2014 Annual Report
Joint Precision Approach and Landing System, Increment 1A (JPALS Inc 1A)

March 2015 DoD Systems Engineering

"...Executive Summary: JPALS Inc 1A is an ACAT ID program in the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction phase that will provide a Global Positioning System (GPS-based precision approach and landing capability for JPALS-equipped manned aircraft at sea. The program experienced a critical Nunn-McCurdy (NM) breach and was recertified in June 2014; DASD(SE) confirmed the NM root cause was not technical and assessed that the technical plans and management processes are adequate to support the restructured program. Efforts to complete the development, trade studies, and risk reduction efforts are on track to begin in FY 2015.

Mission and System Description: The JPALS will safeguard the future precision approach and landing capability for any JPALS-equipped aircraft (e.g., F-35 Joint Strike Fighter and Unmanned Carrier-Launched Airborne Surveillance and Strike (UCLASS)) during operations at sea in virtually any weather condition. The restructured program will provide the continued development, integration, installation, and test on sea-based JPALS on all large-deck ships....

...Performance - Based on a February 2014 Inc 1A System Verification Review (SVR)-like event, all four Inc 1A KPPs and five KSAs remain on track to complete Navy, Commander Operational Test and Evaluation Force Letter of Observation (LOO). The Inc 1A completed the shipboard portion of the operational Assessment in December 2013. The contractor successfully completed a proof of concept demonstration of the auto-land capability with 70 hands-free precision approaches onboard CVN 71. This demonstration greatly reduced the risk for the auto-land capability for the restructured JPALS program....

...Integration - The Inc 1A program completed shipboard integration on CVN 77. The program reduced integration risk with the use of the duplicate string of shipboard infrastructure (equipment and network) in the landing system test facility at Patuxent River Naval Air Station. Derived requirements for F-35 and UCLASS integration are pending completion of the trade studies.

Conclusion: The JPALS risk reduction efforts to support the F-35 and UCLASS are on track to begin in FY 2015. DASD(SE) assesses the program plans and processes as adequate to support the JPALS program."

Source: https://www.scribd.com/doc/261315401/SE-FY14-Report
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Unread post14 Apr 2015, 21:47

Flight Researchers Seek Answers to Bad Weather
01 Mar 2015 Sandra Jontz

"Technologies could keep aircraft operating in bad environments on combat missions.

As scientists sleuth to enhance U.S. military air mission capabilities through automation and alternative technologies, some in the Office of Naval Research want to find ways for aircraft — manned or unmanned — to operate in even the worst kinds of weather. Along with working on aircraft that would operate without a Global Positioning System, radar or even pilots, the experts are exploring how these vehicles could function in the most unfavorable conditions — particularly as they navigate the complex maritime role unique to the U.S. Navy of landing aircraft on moving ships....

...In October, for example, when Pentagon spokesman Rear Adm. John Kirby, USN, was asked what kind of weather kept the United States from flying sorties to hit targets in the air campaign against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), he offered journalists a terse reply: “Bad.” Adverse weather historically has hampered combat missions, restricting aircraft from taking to the skies or impeding the collection of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) data and communications. In today’s world of advanced technology, where the United States, with its all-weather bombers and GPS-guided munitions, has air superiority over other nations, weather remains an inescapable Achilles’ heel.

While GPSs have revolutionized the way the military moves and fights, they do have limitations. GPS signals do not work underground or underwater, for example, and they can be degraded significantly during solar storms. The technology is susceptible to blocking and jamming. As such, GPSs are not the military’s sole source of positioning, navigation and timing data, and radar can leave a radiation trail that can act like crosshairs on a target to an enemy force....

...The ONR contracted Pennsylvania-based Near Earth Autonomy to conduct sensor modeling and testing under its Sea-Based Automated Launch and Recovery System (SALRS) program for robust ship-relative navigation in degraded conditions. The 18-month effort nearing completion tests varying sensors for development of PS-RN capabilities applicable to autonomous landing and recovery operations in demanding environments, Kinzer says. “The program is looking at testing sensors in the naval environment that includes fog, snow, rain, hot, cold, humidity—all those different conditions. We’re testing a group of relevant sensors in those conditions to establish a capability baseline,” he says. The Navy wants superlative navigational tools that would allow aircraft, both manned and unmanned, to establish their position relative to a ship deck and successfully land on the moving target without the aid of a GPS, says Near Earth Autonomy CEO Sanjiv Singh. The company is testing varying kinds of sensors, from electro-optical to the three infrared spectral bands, radio transponders, radar and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems. “We are trying to figure out what’s possible,” Singh says. Inclement weather with reduced visibility could prove to be a limitation of the imaging technology, Kinzer points out. “One of the shortcomings, of course, of imaging devices is getting through weather. Fog and rain and snow are going to interfere with both infrared and electro-optics. The question is what kind of capability can we have using those systems in different kinds of weather? That’s one of the big questions for us in the testing that we’re doing.” It still is too early in the research stage for scientists to come to any conclusions as to whether the sensor technology might serve as a feasible alternative to GPS and radar, Singh says. The company built a 16-by-16-foot mock ship that moves exactly as a floating ship would and can simulate the pitches, rolls and heaves of ship flight decks....

...The tumultuous effects of weather can wreak havoc inside the cockpit as much as they can on the outside, says Lt. Col. Chris Kibble, USAF, combat air forces, ISR branch chief. “Sometimes, weather can cause pilots to lose situational awareness. It doesn’t take a sandstorm or tornado to do that. It can be very benign weather that the pilot is flying in and just, well, your brain can play tricks on you,” explains Col. Kibble, who would like to see increased research on better ways pilots can avert cockpit disorientation. One day, Col. Mundie says, he also would like to see development of an aircraft that could operate at low and high altitudes and be able to continue into space—all in one aircraft, all in one system. “I think that would be an amazing plus for the Air Force, space force and cyber force, all combined into one system,” he says. “I think it would be exactly the way the Air Force would want to go and fits in exactly with the key missions of the Air Force.”"

Source: http://www.afcea.org/content/?q=node/14077
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Unread post04 May 2015, 23:32

http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articl ... of-411862/

AUVSI: Future UCLASS requirements pose questions on worth of X-47B

Beth Stevenson

.The future of the two X-47B demonstrators also remains unclear. As it stands, funding is exhausted, with the navy having spent some $1.5 billion on their development. .., .programme manager for unmanned combat air systems at Northop Grumman, says there is still testing that could be carried out to keep the capability relevant until the UCLASS is brought into service in around 2023. ... “The aircraft are at the peak of efficiency at the moment, and the more things we can learn the better off we will be.” .. says that possible future testing, should more funds become available, would include sensor integration testing, concert flights around an aircraft carrier, and integrating the Joint Precision Approach and Landing System.

While the aircraft are technically navy property, Northrop could take the aircraft and carry out its own testing. “We would be willing to take the aircraft back before we see them chomped up or buried in the ground,” he says, noting that it could approach the US Air Force regarding testing. “The navy has been making history with these, and we stand ready to go and do anything else that is required,” . notes.

Wow!, they did that without JPALS,...hmmmn....the F-35C made 124-0 traps, without JPALS....wonder what they can do with JPALS (differential GPS) ?? less the wonderful attribute of Air Traffic Control, etc..... :)
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Unread post04 May 2015, 23:36

You would have to read the X-47B thread to know that a version of JPALS for the X-47B was installed on the carriers, that operated the aircraft, was used. Perhaps the reference was to the 'final' version of JPALS that will be used by the Super Hornet and F-35B/Cs. Then there would be only one version of JPALS to rool them all in use. Go to the F-35 and X-47B thread below:

viewtopic.php?f=55&t=20468 Search using 'JPALS' to view three pages of hits.

The F-35C has a pilot to use the controls and be aided by IDLC & Delta Flight Path Tech (magic carpet) and the landing aids (IFLOLS) to get aboard - JPALS not required for visual landings. X-47B is a robot carrying out an automatic landing with precision as we know. A version of JPALS OK for the X-47B is required for robot operation to the deck.

JPALS will allow aircraft so fitted to start their return to the carrier from 200 nm out without giving away either them or the ship. As the aircraft get closer then the precision of JPALS increases such that an auto landing to the deck, with precision, in all weathers (there would be limits to ship movement no doubt) for all aircraft so fitted, will be possible. AFAIK JPALS is not operational yet - still in test phase - but a version was tested OK for the X-47B - this has been made clear in the thread noted above. Searching those search results with 'PGPS' we get this gem:
"...[2012] Block 2 testing will also see the X-47B testing its Precision GPS (PGPS) navigation system, taking the first ever autonomous catapult shots and autonomous arrested landings at Pax River...." viewtopic.php?f=55&t=20468&p=251988&hilit=JPALS+PGPS#p251988
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Unread post16 May 2015, 13:10

Future USS Gerald R. Ford successfully tests new electromagnetic launch system
13 May 2015 Matt Knight

"GERALD R. FORD,
Today marks a significant and successful milestone in our test program and in our push to deliver GERALD R. FORD to the operational Navy.

Catapult two launched a series of no-load test launches of the Electromagnetic Aircraft Launch System (EMALS) that clearly demonstrates the first shipboard operation of the system at launch representative speeds. We remain on track to start launching “dead loads” (sleds) in to the James River in about 2 weeks. The tests were conducted throughout the day at varying speeds and distances, culminating in full length & full speed shots.

This event is significant as it reflects the extraordinary engineering rigor and technical advances of this system. . . .a system designed by General Atomics and installed to exacting standards by Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS). Testing is being conducted with representatives of General Atomics, NNS, Naval Air Systems Command, Supervisor of Shipbuilding Newport News and GERALD R. FORD.

Our Air Department has taken operational control of EMALS for the test program. LT Sergio Ibarra (our first “shooter”) launched the first no load today!

Congratulations to the Air Department for this successful test and for the pride in ownership for every aspect of this test program! For GERALD R. FORD … We are one step closer to delivery!

V/R,
John F. Meier, CAPT, USN Commanding Officer PCU Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78)"
VIDEO: https://www.facebook.com/USSGeraldRFord ... =2&theater

Photo: https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/ ... 6010_o.jpg

Source: http://wtkr.com/2015/05/13/257157/
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